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Table 1 The effects of toll-like receptor stimulation on mesenchymal stem cells

From: New concepts on the immune modulation mediated by mesenchymal stem cells

  Effect of TLR stimulation and references
Stem cell property TLR2 (Pam3Cys) TLR3 (Poly(I:C)) TLR4 (LPS+) TLR5 (Flagellin) TLR9 (CpG-ODNs)
Proliferation      
   hADSCs NC [24, 26] NC [24, 26] NC [24, 26]   ↓ [24]
   hMSCs   NC [28, 45] NC [86], ↑ [87, 88]   
   muMSCs ↑ [27]   ↑ [27]   
Migration      
   hMSCs   ↑ [28, 29] ↑ [28, 29] ↑ [28] ↑ [28]
   muMSCs ↓ [27]     
Differentiation      
   Cartilage      
hMSCs   NC [25] NC [25]   
muMSCs ↓ [27]     
   Bone      
hADSCs ↑ [24], NC [26] ↑ [26], NC [24] ↑ [24, 26] NC [24] ↓ [24]
hMSCs    ↑ [29], NC [25]   
muMSCs ↓ [27]     
   Adipose      
hADSCs NC [24, 26] NC [24, 26] NC [24, 26] NC [24] NC [24, 26]
hMSCs   ↓ [29] ↓ [29]   
muMSCs ↓ [27]     
Immune suppression      
   hADSCs NC [26] NC [26] NC [26]   
   hMSCs   ↑ [28, 29, 45] ↑ [45]   
   muMSCs NC [27]     
Immune stimulation      
   hADSCs NC [24, 26]     
   hMSCs   ↑ [25] ↑ [25, 28, 29, 45]   
  1. Down arrows indicate inhibited effect; up arrows indicate enhanced effect; NC indicates no change or effect. hADSC, human adipose-derived stem cell; hMSC, human mesenchymal stem cell; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; muMSC, murine mesenchymal stem cell; ODN, oligodeoxynucleotide; poly(I:C), polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid; TLR, toll-like receptor.