Osteogenic gene expressions of hGMSCs after EMD stimulations. (A) The mRNA expression of ALP in hGMSCs after EMD treatments for up to 24 hours. (B and C) The mRNA expressions of OC and AMBN in hGMSCs after EMD treatments. (means ± standard deviations, and *: significant difference at P <0.05 versus 0 μg/ml EMD at each observation interval). ALP, alkaline phosphatase; AMBN, ameloblastin; EMD, enamel matrix derivative; hGMSCs, human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells; OC, osteocalcin.