Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) niche characterization and i n vitro and in vivo analyses of ASC neovascular potential. (A) Transcriptional profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and wild-type (WT) murine fat pads. A dysfunctional in situ signaling environment was observed in the setting of diabetes. (B) Matrigel culture of WT and DM2 ASCs under hypoxic conditions. Tubules per high-power field (HPF) were quantified as a surrogate for direct ASC vasculogenic potential. (C) Matrigel co-culture of ASCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under hypoxic conditions. HUVEC tubules per HPF were quantified as a measure of ASC-mediated endothelial network formation. (D) CD31 staining to quantify in vivo Matrigel plug vascularity following seeding with either WT or DM2 ASCs. Insets provide gross images of explanted plugs. Scale bar = 50 μm. *P ≤0.05, **P <0.01.