Infused MSCs persist in the lung and muscle and suppress tissue damage. (a) MSCs persisted in the lung and injured muscle 24 hours after rhabdomyolysis. RFP-labelled MSCs (red) were detected in vivo using two-photon fluorescence confocal microscopy. Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). Original magnification, ×600, n = 3. (b) Representative H & E-stained paraffin-embedded sections of kidney, gastrocnemius muscle and lung with or without administration of MSCs (n = 10). Mice were sacrificed 24 hours after rhabdomyolysis. (c) ELISA showed that MSC treatment significantly decreased the levels of both of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. *P <0.05 versus RM + NS, n = 5. DAPI, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; MSCs, mesenchymal stem cells; NS, normal saline; RM, rhabdomyolysis.