MSCs induce M2 macrophages 24 hours after rhabdomyolysis, and macrophage depletion delays recovery of AKI. (a) Western blotting analysis of mannose receptor (CD206) expression in the kidney 24 hours after rhabdomyolysis. #P <0.05 versus RM(−), *P <0.01 versus RM + NS, n = 3. (b) Renal histopathology observed after 48 and 72 hours of MSC-treated rhabdomyolysis in mice for the liposomal vehicle (LV) control group (MSCs + LV) and liposomal-encapsulated clodronate (LC) group (MSCs + LC) (HPFs, ×400, n = 5). (c) Serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) scores of MSC-treated rhabdomyolysis mice treated with LC or LV. *P <0.05 versus MSCs + LV, #P <0.01 versus MSCs + LV, n = 5. AKI, acute kidney injury; HPFs, high-power fields; MSCs, mesenchymal stem cells; NS, normal saline; RM, rhabdomyolysis.