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Table 2 Repair of injured spinal cord using biomaterial scaffolds and neural stem cell cells

From: Repair of injured spinal cord using biomaterial scaffolds and stem cells

Injury Animal model SCI stagea Scaffold Stem cell Outcome Reference
Complete transection (T8-T9) Rat Acute PLGA multichannel conduit Embryonic rat NSC Facilitated regeneration of axons in channels of scaffold [47]
Transection (T9-T10) Rat Acute PLGA multichannel conduit Neonatal rat NSC Axonal regeneration, NSC differentiation, functional improvement [63]
Hemisection (T9-T10) Rat Acute PLGA-oriented scaffold Neonatal rat NPC Increase in vessel density, reduced glial scarring, inflammatory response [64]
Two hemisections (T7-8 and L2-3) Rat Acute PLGA film Human fetal brain NSC Lower rates of human NSC death in films embedded with reactive oxygen, species collectors (MnTBAP, UA) [60]
Hemisection (T7-T8) Rat Acute PCL scaffolds Human fetal NSC Implanting NSCs overexpressing NT-3 resulted in increased behavioral and electro-physiological recovery [65]
Transection (C6-C7)   Acute Self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold Embryonic NPC Microenvironment around cells in the scaffolds, controlled cell proliferation, differentiation [66]
Full-resection (5 mm) of spinal cord (T8 and T9) Rat Acute Collagen gelfoam Adult rat NSC Decrease in scar formation [57]
Complete transection (T10) Rat Acute Gelfoam Neonatal rat NSC Improved relay of cortical motor-evoked potential and cortical somatosensory-evoked potential [67]
Complete transection (T8) Rat Acute Chitosan channels Adult rat NSPC Improved survival of NSPCs, NSPCs differentiated into mature astrocytes and oligodendrocytes [48]
Hemisection (T11) Canine Acute PLGA scaffolds Human NSC Grafted NSC survived implantation procedure and showed migratory behavior to residual spinal cord tissue [68]
Hemisection (T9) African green monkey Acute PLGA porous scaffolds Human NSC Behavioral evaluations confirmed improvement in post-operative paralysis, model appropriate for future studies with primates [69]
Clip compression injury (T7-T9) Rat Implantation of scaffolds with cells 3 weeks after original injury Chitosan channels Adult rat spinal cords NSPC Improved survival of seeded NSPCs in chitosan channel [56]
  1. aAcute refers to implantation of scaffolds with cells immediately after injury. MnTBAP, manganese (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin; NPC, neural precursor cell; NSC, neural stem cell; NSPC, neural stem and precursor cell; NT, neurotrophin; PCL, poly(ε-caprolactone); PLGA, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); SCI, spinal cord injury; UA, uric acid.