Mesenchymal stem cell phenotype and levels of the growth factors HGF, VEGF-A and IGF-1 in conditioned medium at 24, 48 and 72 hours. (A) Light microscopy revealed that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were spindle-shaped. (B) Oil Red O staining determined differentiation to adipocytes. (C) Alizarin Red S was used to show differentiation to osteocytes. (D) Alkaline phosphatase staining also confirmed differentiation to osteocytes. Magnification, ×100. (E) Representative flow cytometry graphs of surface markers. The cells were positive for CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105 and were negative for CD45, CD34 and CD11b. Red areas, tested antibodies; white areas, isotype controls. (F) Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in conditioned medium and control medium (n = 8). IGF-1 and VEGF-A shown on the left and HGF on the right of the y axis. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation. #P < 0.01 versus control medium.