SHED transplantation reduced levels of autoantibodies and improved renal function in MRL/ lpr mice. Figure 4A shows the scheme of SHED and BMMSC transplantation procedures. (B-D) ELISA quantified that levels of anti dsDNA IgG (B), IgM (C) and nuclear (D) antibodies (ANA) (mean ± SD) were significantly reduced in the peripheral blood of SHED and BMMSC treated MRL/lpr mice (n = 6) when compared to un-treated MRL/lpr mice c (n = 6) (***P < 0.001). It appeared that SHED transplantation resulted in a more significant reduction in anti IgG when compared to BMMSC transplantation (B). (E) MRL/lpr mice showed renal disorders such as nephritis with glomerular basal membrane disorder and mesangium cell over-growth. SHED and BMSSC transplantation resulted in a reduced basal membrane disorder and mesangium cell over-growth in glomerular (G) (upper panels, H&E staining; middle panels, trichrome staining; lower panels, periodic acid-schiff staining). Representative images of un-treated, SHED and BMMSC MRL/lpr (n = 6). (F) ELISA analysis showed that SHED transplantation has the same effect as seen in BMMSC transplantation in significantly reducing C3 level in urine and elevating C3 level in serum (n = 6, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01). (G) SHED transplantation significantly reduced urine protein levels (mean ± SD) compared to BMMSC transplanted MRL/lpr mice (n = 6). ([[[P < 0.001). (H) Markedly increased urine creatinine and reduced serum creatinine were observed in SHED and BMMSC transplanted MRL/lpr mice (n = 6) compared to un-treated MRL/lpr mice (n = 6, [[[P < 0.001, [[P < 0.01).