Proliferation of endogenous NSC is induced by ar-turmerone in vivo. (A) Staining for proliferating NSCs with anti-BrdU demonstrates that the subventricular zone (SVZ) of rats treated with 3 mg (1 mg/μl) ar-turmerone i.c.v. (left) was wider than that of placebo-treated control animals (Aʹ, right); bar represents 100 μm. (B) Differences in the width of the SVZ were statistically significant (mean ± SEM; *P < 0.05, compared with control). (C) BrdU staining of the hippocampus did not reveal a statistically significant increase in the width of the dentate gyrus, although a trend was noted favoring ar-turmerone (mean ± SEM).