Mouse model of myocardial infarction. Schematic illustration of myocardial infarction (MI) in Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed double-transgenic mice. (A) A left lateral thoracotomy was performed on anesthetized and ventilated animals to expose the heart. The left anterior descending coronary artery was permanently ligated, forming a localized ischemic area. This surgical procedure mimics pathophysiological aspects of MI. (B) Gross anatomy representative of normal and fibrotic mouse hearts used in the study. Histology of representative control (C) and infarcted (D) hearts. Longitudinal sections of paraffin-embedded myocardial tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. Cardiac fibrosis was evaluated by Van Gieson’s (peach, fibrillar collagen; pink, myocardium) and Masson’s trichrome (blue, fibrillar collagen; red, myocardium) staining 2 weeks after MI.