Early arrested autophagy can be modulated to alter immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell adipogenesis outcomes. (A) Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated under adipogenic conditions were left untreated or treated with 5 μM rapamycin or 5 nM bafilomycin for the first 3 hours of differentiation. Differentiation outcomes were monitored via changes in fat droplet accumulation by using an Oil Red O stain. (B) Fat droplet percentage area in individual images was quantified by using thresholded images to monitor adipocyte formation. Analysis was performed by using representative images from eight-image fields across two studies (#P <0.05).