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Table 3 Previous studies of implanted cell persistence and migration in vivo

From: Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells demonstrate short-lived persistence after implantation in both an immunocompetent and an immunocompromised murine model

Reference Species of donor and recipient Method and site of delivery Cell labeling method Findings
[4] Donor, human ASCs; Recipient, SCID mice 5 × 106cells injected intramyocardially in the peri-infarct region Transduction with luciferase, GFP 10 weeks: 10% of the human ASCs were localized at the site of injection for 10 weeks. No migration detected. 3.5% differentiated into cardiomyocytes or endothelial cells.
[3] Donor, human HL60 cells; recipient, NOD/SCID mice Intravenous injection of 20 × 106 cells stained with DIR. Rest of the cell labeling techniques were studied in vitro Lipophilic dyes: DiI, DiD, DiR, PKH26 2 weeks: lipophilic dyes lead to rapid contamination of neighboring cells. CFSE showed good biocompatibility and staining efficiency and showed little contamination. DDAO was toxic to cells. Quantum dots provided heterogeneous staining that is not suitable for intravital microscopy (IVM). IRDye 800CW had suboptimal excitation by the 633 nm lasers used for IVM in this study
   Amine reactive dye: CFSE, DDAO-SE
   Nano crystals: quantum dots 70S
   Antibodies: IRDye 800CW
[30] Donor, porcine ASCs; recipient, Pigs Subcutaneous implantation of cells seeded in collagen scaffold BrdU labeling 4 weeks: BrdU-labeled ASCs were present but no quantification was done
[31] Donor, MCF7 human breast cancer cells, human cord blood-derived cells, human NeoHep cells, human hepatopancreatic precursors; recipient, NOD/SCID mice Injection into left lobe of liver, 7.5 × 105 human NeoHep or cord blood cells; tail vein injection, 5 × 106 MCF7 cells; intrapancreatic injection, 5 × 105 hepatopancreatic precursor cells; intracardiac transplantation, 5 × 105 hepatopancreatic precursor cells DiI and red fluorescent nanoparticles Qdot655 3 weeks: FISH for human-specific Alu sequence and mouse major satellite showed that though many of DiI-labeled cells were human in origin, some were phagocytosed by murine cells. Qdot655 faded during the FISH procedure.
[6] Donor, human ASCs; recipient, BALB/C nu/nu mice 5 × 106cells injected i.m. or i.v. Transduction with luciferase 75% of cells were lost in first week, the remainder were stable for up to 32 weeks
[28] Donor, sheep MSCs; recipient, Merino-cross sheep Intramuscular injection DiI labeling and CFSE DiI-labeled MSCs showed dye retention for 6 weeks. CFSE showed rapid signal loss over 8 days
[32] Donor, human ASCs; recipient, BALB/C nu/nu mice 106 cells injected i.m., s.c., i.v., i.p. or enclosed in a fibrin matrix Lipofection and electroporation with luciferase, GFP 3 weeks: cells migrated and accumulated at the ventral side. A higher fibrinogen concentration limited cell mobility in the fibrin matrix
  1. ASC, adipose-derived stromal/stem cell; CFSE, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester; FISH, fluorescent in situ hybridization; GFP, green fluorescent protein; i.m., intramuscularly; i.p., intraperitoneally; i.v., intravenously; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; NOD/SCID, nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency; s.c., subcutaneously.