Skip to main content

Table 1 Literature showing the tissue-regenerative abilities of different stem cells through a paracrine effect

From: Terminal differentiation is not a major determinant for the success of stem cell therapy - cross-talk between muscle-derived stem cells and host cells

Stem cell source Animal model Resident tissue Disease model Number of cells injected Route of transplantation Time of transplantation post-injury Cell engraftment Outcome Reference
ASCs Rat Heart Myocardial infarction 5 × 106 Intramyocardial 1 week 0.5% at 30 days Paracrine effect underlying mechanism behind increased capillary density [71]
BM Rat Heart Myocardial cryo-damage 2 × 107 Infusion via femoral vein 1 week 14 cells per field Stem cells modulate inflammatory response [65]
MSCs Rat Heart Myocardial infarction 1.6 × 107 Intramyocardial 1 week Few Paracrine effect, angiogenesis, and cytoprotection [68]
SM Nude rat Heart Myocardial infarction 5 × 106 Intramyocardial 10 days Few cells at 30 days Myoblast-secreted factors induced cardiac repair [122]
SM-CD133+ Nude rat Heart Myocardial infarction 5 × 105 to 5 × 106 Intramyocardial 10 days Few cells at 30 days. CD133+ detected only by PCR Both myogenic and bone marrow-derived cells improved cardiac function though the myogenic cells were superior [123]
BM Mouse Muscle Femoral artery ligation (hindlimb ischemia) 1 × 106 Intramuscular 24 hours Few Cells secrete arteriogenic cytokines [66]
EPCs/OECs Nude mouse Muscle Hindlimb ischemia 2 × 105 Intramuscular 3 to 6 hours 33% of new vessels contained donor cells Neovascularization through cytokines [73]
EPCs Rabbit Cerebral arteries Common carotid artery denudation 5 × 105 Injection into arterial lumen Immediately Few colonies Stem cells promote vasoprotection [124]
EPCs Rabbit Basilar arteries No injury 5 × 105 Injection into cistern magna NA Few colonies Stem cells promote vasoprotection by cyclogenase-2 via paracrine activity [72]
MSCs Mouse Kidney Renal ischemia (kidney clamping) 105 Intra-arterial infusion Simultaneous with kidney clamping <1 cell per whole kidney section Vasculotropic and paracrine effects [125]
MSC (4E) Mouse Kidney Renal ischemia (kidney clamping) 106 Intravenously via tail injection 24 hours 9 to 45% at 15 to 30 days Paracrine angiogenic chemoattraction and neovascularization [74]
BM-MSCs Mouse Skin Excisional wound splinting Conditioned media from cells Subcutaneous Immediately NA Conditioning media enhance wound healing by recruiting macrophages and endothelial cells [67]
Chondrocytes/periosteal cells Miniature pig Joint cartilage Superficial chondral lesions 5 × 105 Press-fitting into cavity Immediately 0% in the repair area after 12 weeks Donor cells secrete BMP2 and recruited bone marrow-derived cells to the injury site [114]
BM Sheep Cartilage Full thickness cartilage defects NA Implants with cells Immediately NA No improvement on tissue repair with increased cell loading [126]
Autologous MSCs Lamb Cartilage Tibial growth plate defect 4 × 106 in gel foam Gel foam scaffold 5 minutes NA MSC cells can be used to regenerate growth plate [127]
MSCs from fat pad Rabbit Cartilage Osteoarthritis 1 × 106 Intra-articular injection 12 weeks NA Infrapatellar fat pad-derived cells can be used to repair osteoarthritis [128]
hADSCs Rat Bone Calvarial defect 1 × 106 Cell plus scaffold implant Immediately NA Donor cells detected by FISH. Alendronate enhances hADSC osteogenic ability [129]
hESCs-CTP Mouse Tendon Full thickness Achilles tendon injury NA Engineered tendon graft Immediately NA Tendon graft made of CTP had the ability to repair tendon [130]
BM Goat Meniscus Osteoarthritis by ACL transection and menisectomy 10 × 106 Intra-articular injection 6 weeks High level GFP labeled donor cells detected especially at the surface of tissues [131]
Allogenic BM-MSCs Human Systemic Osteogenesis imperfect disorder 5.7 × 108 to 7.5 × 108 cells/kg Intravenous infusion NA 1.5 to 2.0% after 3 months Increased bone density in osteogenic imperfecta patients [132]
  1. ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; ASC, adipose-derived stem cell; BM, bone marrow; BM-MSC, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell; BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; EPC, endothelial progenitor cell; FISH, fluorescent in situ hybridization; GFP, green fluorescent protein; hADSC, human adipose-derived stem cell; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; MSC (4E), kidney-derived mesenchymal stem cell; NA, not available; OEC, outgrowth endothelial cell; SM, skeletal myoblast; SM-CD133+, skeletal myoblast and bone marrow-derived CD133+; hESC-CTP, connective tissue progenitor from human embryonic stem cell.