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Table 1 Various methods used for reprogramming

From: Investigating cellular identity and manipulating cell fate using induced pluripotent stem cells

Method Factorsa Sources Enhancement factors
Adenovirus OSKM Mouse fibroblast and liver cells [77], human embryonic fibroblast cells [78]  
Bacteriophage OSKM Mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human amniocytes [79]  
Episomal vector OSKMNL Human foreskin fibroblasts [36] SV40LT
   Human fibroblasts, adipose stem cells, cod blood cells [80] SV40LT, LIF, MEK/GSK3b/TGFBR inhibitor, HA-100/human
  OSKM*L Human dermal fibroblasts [81] p53 shRNA
Lentivirus OSKM Mouse pancreatic b cells [20]  
   Human adult fibroblasts [82] p53 siRNA, UTF1
   Mouse B lymphocytes [21] C/EBPa or Pax5 shRNA
  OSNL Human newborn foreskin [9]  
   Human fibroblasts [83] SV40LT
  OSKMNL Human fibroblasts [84]  
  OSN Gut mesentery-derived cells [85], human amnion-derived cells [86]  
  O Human epidermal keratinocytes [87] TGFBR/MEK1 inhibitor, PDK1 activator, sodium butyrate
Minicircle vector OSNL Human adipose stromal cells [37]  
microRNA miR-200c, 302a/b/c/d, 369-3p/5p Human and mouse adipose stromal cells [64]  
mRNA OSNL Human fibroblasts [88]  
  OSKM(L) Primary human neonatal epidermal keratinocytes [40]  
piggyBAC OSKM Human and mouse embryonic fibroblasts [89, 90]  
Plasmid OSKM Mouse embryonic fibroblasts [35, 91]  
  OSNL Human foreskin fibroblasts [92] MEK inhibitor
Protein OSKM Mouse embryonic fibroblasts [38] VPA
  OSKM Human fibroblasts [39]  
Retrovirus OSKM Human fibroblasts [8], mouse fibroblasts [7], human keratinocytes [23], human peripheral blood cells [25]  
   Human fibroblasts, adipose stem cells [93] Vitamin C, VPA
  OSK Adult human dermal fibroblasts [30]  
   Mouse embryonic fibroblasts [94] Wnt3a
   Rat liver progenitor cells [11] MEK/ALK5/GSK3b inhibitor
   Mouse embryonic fibroblasts [93] Vitamin C
   Mouse and human fibroblasts [32] GLIS1
   Mouse embryonic fibroblasts [95] mmu-miR-106a/18b/20b/19b/92a/363 or 302a/302b/302c/302d/367
   Human fibroblasts [96] hsa-miR-302b or 372
  OK Mouse embryonic fibroblasts [97] BIX01294, BayK8644
   Neonatal human epidermal keratinocytes [98] GSK3b inhibitor
  O Mouse neural stem cells [99]  
   Mouse fibroblasts [100] GSK3b inhibitor, vitamin C, BMP4
  hsa-miR-302a/b/c/d Human skin cancer cells [101]  
Sendai virus OSKM Human fibroblasts [33], human cord blood [102]  
  1. aO, OCT3/4; S, SOX2; K, KLF4; M, C-MYC; M*, L-MYC; N, NANOG; L, LIN28. ALK, anaplastic lymphoma kinase; BayK8644, L-type calcium channel agonist; BIX01294, histone methyltransferase inhibitor; BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; GSK, glycogen synthase kinase; GLIS, GLI (MIM 165220)-related Kruppel-like zinc finger; LIF, leukemia inhibitory factor; PDK, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase; shRNA, short hairpin RNA; siRNA, small interfering RNA; TGFBR, transforming growth factor beta receptor; UTF, undifferentiated transcription factor; VPA, valproic acid (histone deacetylase inhibitor).