Reduced fibrosis in the TSG-6 treated liver. (A) QRT-PCR analysis of liver mRNA for tgf-β, α–sma and collagen-α1 (n ≥4 mice/group). Mean ± SD results are graphed. (B) and (C). Western blot analysis of TGF-β (25 kDa: processed form) (inducer of fibrosis) and α-SMA (fibrogenic marker) (GAPDH was used as an internal control) (n ≥4 mice/group). Data shown represent one of three experiments with similar results (B: Immunoblot/ C: Band density of TGF-β and α-SMA). Data represent the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. (D) IHC for α-SMA in liver sections from representative control, CCl4, CCl4 + NC, and CCl4 + TSG-6 mice (×40) (ANOVA, *P <0.05 versus CTRL, #P <0.05 versus CCl4, $P <0.05 versus CCl4 + NC-CM). ANOVA, analysis of variance; CM, conditioned medium; CTRL, control; IHC, immunohistochemistry; NC, negative control; SD, standard deviation; TSG-6, tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein.