Levels of key growth factors for liver function. (A) The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium/F12 (DMEM/F12), adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ASC) serum-free culture cell supernatant (supernatant), ASC lysate, and concentrated ASC conditional media (CM) (n = 3). (B) The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were determined by ELISA in DMEM/F12, ASC serum-free culture cell supernatant (Supernatant), ASC lysate (Lysate), and concentrated ASC CM (n = 3). (C) Survival curve of the DMEM/F12 group (Control), the ASC lysate group (Lysate), and the concentrated ASC CM group. The survival rate of the ASC lysate-treated group and the CM-treated group was significantly higher, implying that factors secreted by ASCs may play key roles in liver failure improvement (phosphate-buffered saline group: n = 8; ASC lysate/CM group: n = 9; P <0.01). (D) Serum HGF level of the DMEM/F12 group (Control), the ASC lysate group (Lysate), the ASC transplantation group (ASC), and the concentrated ASC CM group (n = 5). (E) Serum VEGF level of rats after treatment (n = 5). *P <0.05, **P <0.01.