Basal and cytokine-induced release of inflammatory chemokines by patient CAFs. CAFs were isolated from lung metastasis of a breast cancer patient (CAFs #1) or from a primary tumor of a different breast cancer patient (CAFs #2). (A1, B1) Expression of the pro-malignancy chemokines CCL2, CXCL8 and CCL5 was determined by ELISA, in the linear range of absorbance. (A2, B2) Expression of CCL5 was determined following TNFa and IL-1β stimulation (TNF-α, 50 ng/ml; IL-1β, 500 pg/ml; 48 hours). Control cells were stimulated by vehicle. Expression of the chemokines was determined by ELISA, in the linear range of absorbance. In all panels, the findings are representatives of at least n = 3 independent experiments that have shown similar results.