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Table 5 Effect of Avemar or Echinacea treatment on the serum granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor level (pg/ml) at different time intervals from AMI development (n = 6/group)

From: Avemar and Echinacea extracts enhance mobilization and homing of CD34+ stem cells in rats with acute myocardial infarction

  Day 1 Day 7 Day 14
Normal 23.45 ± 1.97
AMI 18.68 ± 1.63 16.2 ± 1.37a 13.58 ± 0.87a
AMI post-treated with Avemar 18.68 ± 1.63 13.5 ± 1.2a 13.02 ± 3.66a
AMI pre- and post-treated with Avemar 10.8 ± 1.06ab 7.4 ± 0.35ab 8.48 ± 0.58a
AMI post-treated with Echinacea 18.68 ± 1.63 7.13 ± 0.78ab 7.77 ± 0.59ab
AMI pre- and post-treated with Echinacea 18.89 ± 1.36 15.38 ± 1.07a 21.66 ± 1.6b
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard error. aSignificantly different from the normal group at P < 0.05. bSignificantly different from the corresponding AMI value at P < 0.05. AMI acute myocardial infarction