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Table 1 Common themes in MSC biodistribution research

From: Biodistribution, migration and homing of systemically applied mesenchymal stem/stromal cells

Theme Targeted tissues (possible mechanism) References
Increased homing after intra-arterial delivery compared with intravenous delivery? Kidney [33, 34]
Joints [32]
Stroke [30]
Other (many) tissues [31]
Side effects of intra-arterial versus intravenous delivery? Incorporation into vessel wall [23, 35]
Obstruction of microvessels [38]
Vascular occlusion [39]
Targeting of vessel wall and vessel-associated tissues? Lungs, lymph nodes, intestine [47]
Targeting of tissues for regeneration Myocardium [18, 4855]
 Beta1 integrins [48, 49]
 CCL2, monocytes [52]
Kidney [33, 5663]
Gut and liver [6467]
Skin [44, 6871]
 CCL21 [44]
 JAM-A [68]
Brain [7275]
 P/E selectin (CD44) [73]
 CXCR4/flk-1/EPO-R [74]
Homing to bone marrow Bone marrow [7681]
 HCELL/E-selectin [15]
 Subendothelial localization [79]
Biodistribution to the immune system? Macrophages [37, 41, 42]
Dendritic cells [38]
T cells [39]
Unknown target cells  
 Idoleamine desoxygenase [43]
 Prostaglandin E2 [37, 41]
Elimination mechanisms? Antibody formation [6]
  Phagocytes [102]
Influence of radiation on homing? Increased in brain, heart, bone marrow, and muscles [43, 82]
Homing in malignancies? Tumor [8385, 8792]
 Mediated by CCL25 [88]
 Mediated by sodium iodide symporter under the control of RANTES/CCL-5 promoter [87]
 Homed MSCs form tumor-associated fibroblasts [90]
Formation of microvesicles Microvesicles may contribute to/be part of MSC biodistribution [14, 63, 9397]
 Mediated by horizontal transfer of microRNAs [96]
  1. MSC Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell