Skip to main content

Table 3 Factors and results in direct cardiac reprogramming of human cells

From: Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes

Factors Original cell Markers and efficiency AP Ca2+ transient Beating
ETS2, MESP1 [49] DF NKX2.5-tdTomato+: 30 colonies/plate (cardiac progenitor)
GATA4, MEF2C, TBX5, MESP1, MYOCD [32] HCF cTnT+: 5.9%
α-actinin+: 5.5%
+ + +
GATA4, MEF2C, TBX5, ESRRG, MESP1, MYOCD, ZFPM2 [6] ESC, FH, neonatal skin α-MHC-mCherry+: 15.8%
α-MHC-mCherry+ & cTnT+: 13%
+ + ND
GATA4, MEF2C, TBX5, MESP1, MYOCD, miR-133 [28] HCF cTnT+: 27.8%
α-actinin+: 8%
ND + +
GATA4, HAND2, MYOCD, TBX5, miR-1, miR-133 [31] HFF cTnT+: 34.1% ND + +
CHIR99021, A83-01, BIXO1294, AS8351, SC1, Y27632, OAC2, SU16F, JNJ [36] HFF cTnT+: 6.6% + + +
  1. Differential factors combination and original cells used in human cardiac reprogramming result in different efficiency, revealed by the expression of cardiomyocyte markers, electrophysiological characters and beating property
  2. α-MHC α-myosin heavy chain, AP action potential, cTnT cardiac troponin T, DF dermal fibroblast, ESC embryonic stem cell, FH fetal heart, HCF human cardiac fibroblast, HFF human foreskin fibroblast, ND not detected