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Fig. 5 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 5

From: TGFβ3 recruits endogenous mesenchymal stem cells to initiate bone regeneration

Fig. 5

TGFβ3 recruited endogenous MSCs to initiate bone formation. a Expression of MCP1 in regenerated tissue in the TGFβ3 and vehicle groups at 3 days post implantation. b Immunohistochemical analysis for CD31+. Scale bar: 100 μm. c Number of CD31+ cells. d Immunofluorescent images of Sca-1 and PDGFR-α in scaffolds; green, Sca-1; red, PDGFR-α; blue, DAPI. Scale bar: 20,000 nm. White arrows, Sca-1+ PDGFR-α+ MSCs. e Recruited MSC%. f 3D and 2D center-sagittal view images of regenerated bone mass in the TGFβ3 and vehicle groups at 8 weeks post implantation. Scale bar: 10 mm. g BV/TV and BMD of the regenerated bone in (f). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ****P < 0.001. BMD bone mineral density, BV/TV bone volume fraction, MCP1 monocyte chemotactic protein 1, MSC mesenchymal stem cell, TGFβ3 transforming growth factor beta-3

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