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Table 3 Experimental studies testing the efficacy of MSC-derived EVs in DIN-AKI

From: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles for kidney repair: current status and looming challenges

Type of model Species Intervention Administration method Main findings Reference
In vitro, tubular epithelial cells Mouse Human bone marrow MSC-derived EVs Incubation in culture media •EVs increased cell proliferation
•Transferred IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor
Tomasoni et al. 2013 [45]
In vivo model of cisplatin-induced AKI; in vitro, tubular epithelial cells Rat Human umbilical cord MSC-derived EVs Intra-capsular; incubation in culture media •EVs attenuated tubular injury, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and necrosis
•Improved renal function
Zhou et al. 2013 [46]
In vivo model of cisplatin-induced AKI; in vitro, tubular epithelial cells Mouse Human bone marrow MSC-derived EVs Intravenous; incubation in culture media •EVs preserved renal structure and function
•Decreased renal cell apoptosis
Bruno et al. 2012 [47]
In vivo model of glycerol-induced AKI; in vitro, tubular epithelial cells Mouse Human bone marrow MSC-derived EVs Intravenous; incubation in culture media •EVs improved renal function
•Stimulated tubular cell proliferation and resistance to tubular cell apoptosis
•Transferred mRNAs that control transcription, proliferation, and immunoregulation
Bruno et al. 2009 [48]
In vivo model of glycerol-induced AKI; in vitro, tubular epithelial cells Mouse Human bone marrow MSC-derived EVs Intravenous; incubation in culture media •EVs increased tubular proliferation, prevented necrosis, and preserved renal function
• Exosomes and microvesicles with different molecular composition exhibited distinct renoprotective effects
Bruno et al. 2017 [49]
In vivo model of gentamycin-induced AKI Rat Autologous bone marrow MSC-derived EVs Intravenous •EVs prevented renal dysfunction, necrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation, and increased cell proliferation Reis et al. 2012 [50]
In vivo model of glycerol-induced AKI Rat Human bone marrow MSC-derived EVs Intravenous •EVs downregulated genes involved in inflammation, matrix receptor interaction, and cell adhesion molecules
•EVs with downregulated miRNAs were ineffective
Collino et al. 2015 [51]
In vivo model of cisplatin-induced AKI; in vitro, tubular epithelial cells Rat Human umbilical cord MSC-derived EVs Intra-capsular • EVs inhibited apoptosis and inflammation
• Activated autophagy, which partly mediated EV renoprotective effects
Wang et al. 2017 [52]
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, DIN drug-induced nephropathy, EV extracellular vesicle, IGF insulin growth factor, MSC mesenchymal stem cells