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Fig. 3 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 3

From: Inflammatory licensed equine MSCs are chondroprotective and exhibit enhanced immunomodulation in an inflammatory environment

Fig. 3

Gene expression changes in MSCs following inflammatory priming and/or inflammatory macrophage exposure. MSCs exposed to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and then to inflammatory macrophages. Resultant changes in expression of (a) immunogenicity, (b) inflammation, and (c) immunomodulatory genes measured and compared to untreated, control MSCs using the 2–ΔΔCT method. Priming with IFN-γ and or inflammatory macrophage exposure induced significant increases in (a) MHC-I, MHC-II, (c) IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL10 expression. Priming with poly I:C alone produced few significant changes in gene expression with the exception of (b) IDO, and sequential exposure to poly I:C then inflammatory macrophages induced significant upregulation of IDO compared to inflammatory macrophage exposure alone. Box and whisker plots represent n = 8 individual horses. Groups not sharing same uppercase letter are significantly different, p < 0.05; repeated-measures ANOVA, with horse as a random effect, followed by a Tukey HSD test for multiple comparisons. MSC mesenchymal stem cell, MHC major histocompatibility complex, poly I:C polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, IFN-γ interferon gamma, IDO indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, NOS2 inducible nitric oxide synthase, PTGS2 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, IL interleukin, CCL2 C-C motif chemokine 2, CXCL10 C-X-C motif chemokine 10

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