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Table 1 Summary of encapsulation technologies with diverse materials and MSC types for different target tissues

From: Mesenchymal stem cell 3D encapsulation technologies for biomimetic microenvironment in tissue regeneration

Technologies Benefits and limitations Materials MSC type Target tissue Reference
Micromolding   Benefits:
 • Controlled shape
 • Controlled size
Limitations:
 • Batch process
Fibrin Human bone marrow-derived stem cell Blood vessel [36]
Alginate Bone marrow-derived stem cell Non-specific [37]
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel Human mesenchymal stem cells Non-specific [38]
Electrostatic droplet extrusion   Benefits:
 • Controlled droplet size
 • Uniform droplet size
Limitations:
 • Materials constraints
Alginate Rat adipose-derived stem cell Non-specific [50]
Alginate Human adipose-derived stem cell Non-specific [51]
Alginate-lyase Rat adipose-derived stem cell Bone [85]
Microfluidics Droplet Benefits:
 • Controlled monodispersity
 • Controlled dimensions and shape
Limitations:
 • Non-scalable
Gelatin norbornene (GelNB) and PEG Human bone marrow-derived stem cell Hyaline cartilage [60]
Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) Rat bone marrow-derived stem cell Bone [61]
Alginate/RGD-alginate Human bone marrow-derived stem cell Bone [87]
RGD-alginate Human periodontal ligament stem cell/gingival mesenchymal stem cell Cartilage [84]
Microfiber Benefits:
 • Homogeneous
 • Continuous
Limitations:
 • Flow friction
 • Clogging in microchannels
Alginate Mouse bone marrow-derived stem cell Blood vessel [65]
Bioprinting Inkjet bioprinting Benefits:
 • Low cost
 • High-throughput
Limitations:
 • Nozzle clogging
 • Non-uniform droplet size
PEG-GelMA Human bone marrow-derived stem cell Cartilage/bone [69]
Type I collagen- and chitosan-agarose blends Human bone marrow-derived stem cell Adipose/bone [70]
Fibrin-collagen Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cell and bone marrow-derived stem cell Skin [90]
Agarose-collagen Human bone marrow-derived stem cell Bone [86]
Extrusion bioprinting Benefits:
 • High cell density
 • Wide range of viscous materials
Limitations:
 • Slow speed
 • Viscous liquid only
Methacrylamide gelatin Rat bone marrow-derived stem cell Bone [73]
Polylactic acid (PLA)/GelMA Rat bone marrow-derived stem cell Bone [74]
Cellulose and alginate Human bone marrow-derived stem cell Cartilage [83]
Skin-derived ECM Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell Skin [89]
Laser-assisted bioprinting Benefits:
 • High cell viability
 • Various bioink available
Limitations:
 • High cost
Polyester urethane urea (PEUU) Human bone marrow-derived stem cell Cardiac [79]
Plasma-alginate Porcine bone marrow-derived stem cell Cartilage/bone [80]