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Table 1 Characteristics of clinical trials included in the systematic review

From: Autologous stem cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Author (year) Country Subjects No. of patients No. of Limbs Average age (years) No. of male Treatment strategy Follow-up (months)
Treatment Control Treatment Control Treatment Control Treatment Control Treatment (type, no., route) Control
Tateishi-Yuyama et al. (2002) [22] Japan CLI Fontaine III–IV 22 22 22 22 BMMSCs
1.5 ± 0.6 × 109
IM
No mobilized PBMNCs 6
Huang et al. (2005) [27] China DM with CLI Fontaine III–IV 14 14 23 24 71.1 70.9 9 9 PBMNCs
3 × 109
IM
Conventional therapy 3
Barć et al. (2006) [28] Poland CLI 14 15 14 15 BMMSCs

IM (14 patients) IA (4 patients)
Conventional therapy 6
Arai et al. (2006) [29] Japan CLI Fontaine III or IV 13 12 13 12 62 68 11 7 BMMSCs
(1–3) × 109
IM
Conventional therapy 1
Zhang et al. (2007) [30] China DF Wagner1–3 31 30 31 30    13 12 BMMSCs

IM
Conventional therapy 1
Lu et al. (2008) [31] China DM with CLI FontaineII–IV 25 25 25 25 66.6 65.5 11 15 BMMSCs
7.32 × 108–5.61 × 109
IM
Conventional therapy 3
Dash et al. (2009) [32] India Buerger’s disease and DF (with ulcer) 12 12 12 12 BM MSC
5.04–7.26 × 106
IM
Conventional therapy 3
Chen et al. (2009) [33] China DF Wagner2–4 22 18 22 18 65.8 63.5 BM MSC

IM
Conventional therapy 1
Gan et al. (2009) [34] China DF Wagner1–4 15 15 28 30 BM MSC
(1.35–9.36) × 108
IM
Conventional therapy 3–12
Shi et al. (2009) [35] China DM with PAD 25 25 25 25 35-75 23 BMSCs

IM
Conventional therapy 3
Procházka et al. (2010) [36] Czech Republic CLI with foot ulcer 42 54 42 54 66.2 ± 10.6 64.1 ± 8.6 36 42 ABMSC
0.7–3.83 × 109
IM
Conventional therapy 3–4
Wen and Huang (2010) [37] China CLI Fontaine II–V 30 30 112 60.8 ± 8.6 61.7 ± 8.3 20 19 PBSCs
3 × 109
IM
Conventional therapy 3–36
Walter et al. (2011) [38] Germany CLI 19 21 19 21 64.4 ± 15 64 ± .516 16 13 BM MNC
1.53 × 108
IA
Placebo 3
Iafrati et al. (2011) [39]
Benoit et al. (2011) [40]
America CLI Rutherford4–5 34 14 34 14 72.5 65.7 23 7 BMAC
3.23 × 109
IM
Placebo 3–6
Powell et al. (2011) [41]
Powell et al (2012) [42]
America CLI 48 24 48 24 69.2 ± 13.2 67.3 ± 11.6 34 14 Ixmyelocel-T

IM
Placebo 6–12
Lu et al. (2011) [43] China DM with CLI 20 (BMMSCs)
21 (BMMNCs)
41 20 (BMMSCs)
21 (BMMNCs)
41 BMMSCs
9.3 × 108
BMMNs
9.6 × 108
IM
Placebo 6
Guan et al. (2011) [44] China DF Wagner1–4 39 40 78 80 69 ± 16 45 BM-MNC
1.27~8.95) × 108
IM
Conventional therapy 6–36
Jain et al. (2011) [45] India chronic lower limb wounds in DM 25 23 25 23 54 58 BMSCs

IM
Conventional therapy 3
Ozturk et al. (2012) [46] Turkey DM with CLI Fontaine III–IV 20 20 20 20 79.9 ± 9.2 70.8 ± 8.8 16 13 PBMNC
9.92 × 108–1.24 × 109
IM
Conventional therapy 3
Losordo et al. (2012) [47] America CLI Rutherfod 4–5 7(LD)
9(HD)
12 7(LD)
9(HD)
12 61.8 ± 13.9(LD)
69.7 ± 10.9(HD)
67.1 ± 14.2 5(LD)
8(HD)
6 PMCD34+  0.1/Kg (LD)
1/Kg (HD)
IM
Placebo 12
Li et al. (2013) [48] China CLI 29 29 29 29 61 ± 9 63 ± 10 22 23 BM-MNC

IM
Placebo 6
Szabó et al. (2013) [49] Hungary Fontaine III-IV 10 10 10 10 60.6 ± 8.9 63.0 ± 12.0 8 5 VesCell
6.64 × 107
IM
conventional therapy 3–24
Mohammadzadeh et al. (2013) [50] Iran DM with CLI 7 14 7 14 63.5 ± 7.8 64.2 ± 7.8 PBMCs
0.9–1.2 × 109
IM
Placebo 3
Raval et al. (2014) [51] America CLI 7 3 7 3 65 85 6 2 PBCD133+/PLA
5 × 107–4 × 108
IM
Placebo 12
Teraa et al. (2015) [52] Netherlands CLI Fontaine IIb-IV 81 79 81 79 69 65 57 51 BMMNC
6.57 × 108
IA
Placebo 6
Skóra et al. (2015) [53] Poland CLI Fontaine IV 16 16 16 16 66.76 68.3 11 10 BM MNC+VEGF
0.77–3.83 × 109
IM
Pentoxifylline 3
Lu et al. (2016) [54] China DM with PAD 20 21 20 21 67.2 27 PBSCs

IM
Conventional therapy 6
  1. BMMNC bone marrow mononuclear cells, PBMNC peripheral blood mononuclear cells, BMAC bone marrow aspirate concentrate, BMMSC bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, ABMSC autologous bone marrow stem cells, VesCell peripheral blood-derived autologous angiogenic cell precursors, IM intramuscular, IA intraarterial, LD low dose, HD high dose, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor