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Fig. 2 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 2

From: The functions and clinical application potential of exosomes derived from adipose mesenchymal stem cells: a comprehensive review

Fig. 2

Functions of ADSC-Exos. (a) To enhance proliferation of HDFs by stimulating the expression of MALAT1, which is responsible for increasing cell motility. (b) To inhibit the differentiation of T cells into memory T cell phenotypes and the secretion of IFN-γ. (c) To promote angiogenesis of HUVECs by significantly increasing their tube-formation capability and VEGF secretion. (d) To protect osteocytes from apoptosis by suppressing the production of ROS, promoting the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and inhibiting the expression of the proapoptotic gene Bax, and decreasing the expression of RANKL to antagonize osteoclastogenesis. (e) To promote neurite outgrowth by enhancing neurite lengths, along with the presence of neural growth factors (BDNF, FGF-1, GDNF, IGF-1, and NGF), and increasing the expression of cyclin Ki67 in Schwann cell nuclei, which is a marker of cell proliferation

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