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Table 2 Characteristics of the MSC-based therapies in T2DM

From: Applicability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes

Stem cell type With control study Number of patients Sex male/female Mean age (years) Mean history of disease (years) Mean dose of injected cells Mode of injection Mean follow-up period Glycometabolic control β cell function Insulin sensitivity Immunological recovery Complications Author
BM-MNCs 25 17/8 55.8 13.2 Intra-pancreatic 12 months 4/15 insulin-free, 13/15 reduced insulin requirements ≥ 50%, HbA1C decreased 29.5% C-Pep improved No adverse effects Estrada et al. [43]
BM-MNCs Yes Ctrl 20 MNCs 20 11/9 12/8 54.9 56.4 9.5 9.8 MNC 4.0 × 109 Intra-pancreatic 12 months Insulin dose decreased 30%, HbA1C decreased 13% in the treated group FCP improved Transient abdominal pain Punctual hemorrhage Wu et al. [44]
BM-MNCs 10 8/2 57.5 14.6 MNC 3.5 × 108 (CD34+  3.1 × 106) Intra-pancreatic 6 months 3/10 insulin-free, 7/10 reduced insulin requirements ≥ 50%, HbA1C decreased 13.1% FCP, glucagon-stimulated C-Pep improved, HOMA-β increased HOMA-IR no change Hematoma Hemoglobin Respiratory infection Bhansali et al. [45]
BM-MNCs 31 MNC 3.76 × 109 Intra-pancreatic 24 months 7/26 reduced insulin requirements, HbA1C decreased 18.4% C-Pep improved Wang et al. [46]
BM-MNCs Yes Ctrl 62 MNCs 56 36/18 38/18 50.2 50.4 7.3 8.6 MNC 2.8 × 109 Intra-pancreatic 33 months 18/56 insulin-free, 37/56 reduced insulin requirements ≥ 50%, HbA1C decreased 13.1% in treated group; Insulin dose increased gradually in control FCP, PCP improved in treated group; decreased in control No adverse effects Hu et al. [47]
BM-MNCs +P-MNCs Yes Ctrl 10 MNCs 11 7/3 9/2 54 51 20 12 MNC 2.9 × 108 (CD34+ 3.2 × 106) P-MNC 4.9 × 108 (CD34+ 5.8 × 106) Twice treatment Intra-pancreatic IV 12 months 9/11 reduced insulin requirements ≥ 50%, 10/11 maintain HbA1c < 7% in treated group Glucagon-stimulated C-Pep improved in treated group, HOMA-β no difference HOMA-IR lower in treated group Punctual related effects Bhansali et al. [48]
BM-MNCs/MSCs Yes Ctrl 10 MNCs 10 MSCs 10 6/4 7/3 8/2 53.5 44.5 50.5 14 13 15 MNC 1.1 × 109 (CD34+ 1.8 × 107) MSC 8.35 × 107 Intra-pancreatic 12 months 6/10 reduced insulin requirements ≥ 50%, maintain HbA1c < 7% in both treated groups; None improved in the control group Glucagon-stimulated C-Pep improved in the MNC group ISI improved in MSCs group Punctual hemorrhage Hypoglycemic Bhansali et al. [49]
WJ-MSCs 22 15/7 52.9 8.7 1 × 106/kg Twice treatment IV Intra-pancreatic 12 months 7/17 insulin-free, 12/17 reduced insulin requirements ≥ 50% HbA1C decreased 15% FCP improved; HOMA-β increased T lymphocytes decreased, IL-6 and IL-1β reduced Punctual hemorrhage Fever C-pep temporary decreased Liu et al. [50]
WJ-MSCs 6 6/0 40.5 3.6 0.88 × 106/kg 0.87 × 106/kg Twice treatment IV 24 months 3/6 insulin-free, FCP, PCP improved No adverse effects Guan et al. [51]
WJ-MSCs Yes Ctrl 30 MSC 31 16/14 17/14 53.2 52.4 8.3 8.93 1.0 × 106/kg Twice treatment IV 36 months 10/31 insulin-free, 18/31 reduced insulin requirements ≥ 50%, HbA1C decreased 25.8% in treated group; Insulin dose increased gradually in control FCP improved; HOMA-β increased HOMA-IR decreased trend Hypoglycemia Hu et al. [52]
UC-MSCs 18 1 × 106/kg Thrice treatment IV 6 months Insulin requirements without reduced C-Pep without improved Tregs increased trend Fever Kong et al. [53]
PD-MSCs 10 7/3 66 11 1.35 × 106/kg Thrice treatment IV 6 months 4/10 reduced insulin requirements ≥ 50%, HbA1C decreased 31.6% C-Pep improved No adverse effects Jiang et al. [54]
CB-SCs 36 21/15 52 14 Stem cell educator therapy 14 months Insulin dose, oral medications, HbA1C decreased FCP improved; HOMA-β increased HOMA-IR reduced TGF-β1, CTLA-4 increased; IL-17, IL-12,IL-4, IL-5,CD86 + CD14+ monocytes decreased; increased Punctual-related effects Zhao et al. [55]
  1. Abbreviations: MNCs mononuclear stem cells, MSCs mesenchymal stem cells, BM bone marrow, P peripheral, WJ Wharton’s jelly, UC umbilical cord, PD placenta-derived, CB-SC cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells, Ctrl control, IV intravenous, FCP fasting c-peptide, PCP postprandial c-peptide, C-Pep c-peptide, HOMA-β homeostatic model assessment of beta cell function, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, ISI insulin sensitivity index