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Table 3 Small molecules and peptides used for beta cell differentiation from MSC. Physiological or biochemical actions and substitutes for the small molecules/peptides used to generate beta cells from different tissue-derived MSC

From: An overview on small molecule-induced differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into beta cells for diabetic therapy

Small molecule or peptide—name Structure Mode of action and effect Possible substitute Ref
Nicotinamide PARP inhibition, drives beta cell outgrowth Not known [131]
IDE-1 (inducer of definitive endoderm 1) Favors nodal signaling, induces Sox-17-reporter IDE-2 [86, 116, 132]
l-Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) Cryoprotective agent binding with glycine receptors, involved in calcium signaling Not known [133]
Vitamin C Reducing p53 levels and lightening senescence, thereby inducing complete reprogramming Not known [134]
ILV (indolactam V) Protein kinase C activation, can induce pancreatic progenitor differentiation PbdU [135, 136]
RA (retinoic acid) Receptor for retinoic acid receptors; promotes differentiation into neurons, glia cells, adipocytes Not known [136, 137]
SB203580 MAP kinase (MAPKAP kinase-2 and P38 MAPK) inhibitor, heat shock protein inhibition PD98059,
U0216
[138]
Trichostatin Class 1 and II histone deacetylase inhibitor, removes acetyl groups from the histone tails. Not known [139]
Sodium butyrate Class I inhibitor of histone deacetylases Not known [140]
Lithium chloride Promotes Wnt signaling, blocks glycogen synthase kinase 3-β pathway SB216763, CHIR99021 [141]
PD0325901 MEK/ERK kinase pathway inhibitor Not known [142]
LDN 193189 Inhibitor of ALK 1,2,3,6 pathways Not known [143]
DAPT Gamma secretase inhibition Compound -E [121]
Pentagastrin CCKB agonist, expands beta cell mass. Not known [144]
GLP-1 Augments maturation, belongs to the group of hormones that reduce blood glucose by binding with GLP receptors Exendin, Exenatide, semaglutide [145, 146]
Exendin-4 GLP receptors agonist GLP-1 [147]