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Table 1 Comparison between the pulsed atmospheric arc (PAA) technology and piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD) technology used to generate atmospheric plasma

From: Controlling stem cell fate using cold atmospheric plasma


PAA technology

PDD technology


Based on the ignition of an electric arc between two electrodes by means of pulsed high voltage; gas flow is ionized as it passes close to the arc, which creates a plasma jet of highly reactive gaseous species

Based on the direct electrical discharge at an open piezoelectric transformer; this dissociates and ionizes the surrounding process gas, which is typically ambient air


High process speed; adjustable plasma temperature; long-term stability

Very compact; high efficiency; ambient temperature


Requires automation; need to avoid undesired thermal over-treatment; operate at high power consumption,

Relatively low power output; potential electrical hazard to user due to proximity

Medical applicability

Indirect applications: cell or tissue-resident niche; surgical implant

Direct applications: cells, tissues, and animal or human organs