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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Preclinical efficacy of stem cell therapy for skin flap: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study (year) Country Animal (number) Type of skin flap Skin flap (cm2) Cell type Tissue of origin Transplant type Cell number Method of administration Placebo Outcome index
Chehelcheraghi et al., 2020 [48] Iran Wistar rats (10) Random 24 MSCs Bone marrow Allogenic 6 × 109 Subcutaneous injection None 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density
Chehelcheraghi et al., 2019 [8] Iran Wistar rats (20) Random 24 MSCs Bone marrow Allogenic 6 × 109 Subcutaneous injection Saline 1. Survival rate of flap 2. VEGF
Chehelcheraghi et al., 2016 [47] Iran Wistar rats (20) Random 24 MSCs Bone marrow Allogenic 1 × 109 Subcutaneous injection Saline 1. Survival rate of flap
Chehelcheraghi et al., 2015 [46] Iran Wistar rats (20) Random 24 MSCs Bone marrow Allogenic 1 × 109 Subcutaneous injection Saline 1. Survival rate of flap
Ding et al. #1, 2020 [45] China Wistar rats (12) Axial 25 MSCs Bone marrow Allogenic 1 × 106 Subcutaneous injection PBS 1. Survival rate of flap
Ding et al. #2, 2020 [45] China Wistar rats (12) Axial 25 MSCs Bone marrow Allogenic 5 × 106 Subcutaneous injection PBS 1. Survival rate of flap
Feng et al. #1, 2020 [44] China BALB/C mice (20) Random 9 ASCs Adipose Xenogenic 1 × 103 Intra-arterial injection PBS 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density 3. VEGF
Feng et al. #2, 2020 [44] China BALB/C mice (20) Random 9 ASCs Adipose Xenogenic 1 × 104 Intra-arterial injection PBS 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density 3. VEGF
Feng et al. #3, 2020 [44] China BALB/C mice (20) Random 9 ASCs Adipose Xenogenic 1 × 105 Intra-arterial injection PBS 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density 3. VEGF
Gao et al., 2011 [43] China BALB/c mice (30) Random 3 ASCs Adipose Xenogenic 1 × 107 Subcutaneous injection Medium 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density 3. VEGF
Han et al., 2015 [42] Korea SD rats (14) Random 24 ASCs Adipose Allogenic 5 × 105 Subcutaneous injection Medium 1. Survival rate of flap
Leng et al., 2017 [41] China Wistar rats (48) Random 18 MSCs Umbilical cord Xenogenic 4 × 105 Subcutaneous injection None 1. Survival rate of flap
Leng et al., 2012 [40] China BALB/c mice (20) Axial 18 MSCs Umbilical cord Xenogenic 4 × 105 Subcutaneous injection Medium 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density 3. VEGF
Moon et al., 2018 [39] Korea ICR mice (16) Random 4.5 MSCs Bone marrow Allogenic 2 × 106 Subcutaneous injection None 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density
Pak et al., 2020 [28] Korea SD rats (12) Random 27 ASCs Adipose Xenogenic 5 × 106 Subcutaneous injection None 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density
Park et al., 2017 [38] Korea BALB/c mice (16) Random 8 ASCs Adipose Xenogenic 1.5 × 106 Subcutaneous injection PBS 1. Survival rate of flap
Pu et al., 2017 [19] China C57BL/6 J mice (12) Random 4 ASCs Adipose Xenogenic 1 × 106 Subcutaneous injection Medium 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density
Reichenberger et al., 2012 [37] Germany Lewis rats (16) Axial 60 ASCs Adipose Allogenic 5 × 106 Intravenous injection Medium 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density
Suartz et al., 2014 [36] Brazil Wistar rats (30) Random 40 ASCs Adipose Allogenic 5 × 106 Intravenous injection PBS 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density
Tang et al., 2016 [35] USA C57Bl6 mice (12) Random 2 MSCs Bone marrow Allogenic 3 × 106 Intravenous injection None 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density
Wang et al., 2011 [34] China SD rats (20) Random 16 MSCs Bone marrow Allogenic 4 × 106 Subcutaneous injection Medium 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density 3. VEGF
Yang et al. #1, 2010 [33] China Wistar rats (20) Random 27 MNCs Bone marrow Allogenic 1 × 108 Subcutaneous injection Medium 1. Survival rate of flap 2. VEGF
Yang et al. #2, 2010 [33] China Wistar rats (20) Random 27 ASCs Adipose Allogenic 4 × 106 Subcutaneous injection Medium 1. Survival rate of flap 2. VEGF
Zhou et al., 2019 [18] China BALB/C mice (40) Random 1.25 MSCs Bone marrow Xenogenic 2.5 × 104 Subcutaneous transplantation None 1. Survival rate of flap 2. Blood vessel density
  1. ASCs adipose-derived stem cells, ICR imprinting control region, MNCs mononuclear cells, MSCs mesenchymal stem cells, NA not available, PBS phosphate-buffered saline, SD Sprague-Dawley, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor