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Table 2 BMD: stratified analysis of MSC-treated vs. control

From: Systemic therapy of MSCs in bone regeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Subgroup N Effect estimate I2 p* p**
Species of animals Mice 11 5.67 (3.78, 7.56) 94% p<0.00001 p<0.0001
Rat 5 0.34 (− 1.08, 1.76) 88% p<0.00002  
Swine Not calculated   
Types of MSCs BMSCs 12 3.23 (1.63, 4.84) 94% p<0.00001 P=0.76
Other MSCs 5 2.86 (1.13, 4.60) 87% p<0.00001  
Frequency of injection Single injection 14 2.20 (1.03, 3.37) 92% p<0.00001 N
Multiple injection Not calculated
Time of injection Before modeling Not calculated N
At the same time of modeling Not calculated
After modeling 14 3.92 (2.59, 5.52) 93% p<0.00001
Bone diseases Bone defect 12 2.26 (0.99, 3.54) 92% p<0.00001 p=0.05
Systematic bone diseases 5 6.25 (2.45, 10.05) 92% p<0.00001  
Sex of animals Male 6 3.64 (1.02, 6.27) 96% p<0.00001 p=0.65
Female 5 2.88 (0.90, 4.86) 89% p<0.00001  
  1. p* value for heterogeneity within each subgroup. p** value for heterogeneity between subgroups with meta-regression analysis. MSCs, mesenchymal stem cells; BMSCs, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells