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Table 1 MSC-EVs as potential therapy for MS, and related neurodegenerative diseases

From: Emerging concepts in the treatment of optic neuritis: mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles

Disease Model Administration Molecular mechanism Effect References
MS EAE Rat Intravenous Regulated polarization of microglia M1-M2 Attenuated demyelination and decreased inflammation [141]
  EAE Mice Intravenous Reduced T-cell proliferation and increased regulatory T-cell activity through anti-inflammatory cytokines Improved functional outcomes and clinical score, reduced demyelination [138]
  EAE Mice Intravenous Induced anti-inflammatory TH-2 cytokines and TGF-β Modulated immune response and induced peripheral tolerance [132]
  TMEV-IDD Mice Intravenous Decreased Th-1/Th-17 cytokines Improved motor deficits [131]
Alzheimer APP/PS1 Mice Intravenous Inhibited astrocyte activation, decreased pro-inflammatory and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines Alleviated plaque deposition and Aβ accumulation, improving cognitive function [148]
  3xTg Mice Intranasal Regulated polarization of microglia M1-M2 Neuroprotective effects, increased dendritic spine density [143]
Status Epilepticus Pilocarpine Mice Intranasal Decreased glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, regulation of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines Neuroprotective effects, preserved cognitive and memory function [128]
Stroke MCAO Rats Intravenous miR-133b regulated CTGF in astrocytes, increasing axonal plasticity Induced functional recovery [149]
Glaucoma ONC Mice Intravitreal Improved retinal ganglion cell survival, downregulated cis-p tau Improved cognitive visual behavior [150]
  ONC Rats Intravitreal Modulated inflammatory response through miR-based mechanisms Neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells [130]
  1. CTGF, Connective tissue growth factor; EAE, Experimental animal encephalomyelitis; MCAO, Middle cerebral artery occlusion; MS, Multiple sclerosis; ONC, Optic nerve crush; TMEV-IDD, Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus induced demyelinating disease