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Table 1 Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies for cutaneous wound healing

From: MSCs and their exosomes: a rapidly evolving approach in the context of cutaneous wounds therapy

Cell source Model Results References
BMMNC In vitro Verifying the wound healing capabilities of CD271 + MSCs [193]
AT In vivo Facilitating the wound healing MSCs through the TLR4-dependent shaping of the wound site [194]
BM In vivo Induction of the skin recovery by MSCs through the inhibition of inflammation and also enhancing the skin regeneration-related growth factors [60]
AT In vivo Inhibition of the TNF-α-dependent inflammation, enhancing the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage quantity, and stimulating TGF-β1-mediated angiogenesis, myofibroblast differentiation, and granulation tissue establishment by ppAAc delivered MSCs [51]
BM In vivo Lower immunogenicity and higher infiltration of allogeneic BM-MSCs than allogeneic fibroblasts [188]
BM In vivo Promoting the regeneration of DEB wounds by MSCs by the formation of functional immature anchoring fibrils [54]
BM In vivo Showing the higher capacity to induce wound healing in diabetic mice by BM-MSCs than fibroblasts [53]
BM In vivo Verifying the MSCs recruitment into wound skin and stimulating wound healing by transdifferentiation into several cell types [195]
BM In vivo Promotion of MSCs differentiation ability and diabetic wound healing in diabetic mice by implantation of PEGylated graphene oxide-mediated quercetin-modified collagen hybrid scaffold loaded with MSCs [58]
BM In vivo Promoting the viability and activity of both ISCs and MSCs by their coencapsulation supporting better wound healing [196]
WJ In vivo Amelioration of the proliferation, angiogenesis, and wound healing ability of WJ-MSCs by hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic mice [57]
UCB In vivo Confirming the MSCs differentiation into keratinocyte in the wound tissue [8]
BFP In vivo Inducing wound healing by curcumin-loaded electrospun nanofibers along with MSCs as a bioactive dressing [197]
BM In vivo Stimulating diabetic wound healing by BM-MSCs delivery using N-carboxyethyl chitosan (N-chitosan), adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH), and hyaluronic acid-aldehyde (HA-ALD) hydrogel [59]
NA In vivo Inhibition of wound healing process by miR-27b du to the inhibition of MSCs migration to burned margins [198]
BM In vitro Signifying the critical role of the ERK pathway in the phenotype shift of MSCs into human sweat gland cells (SGCs) [199]
BM In vivo Facilitating wound healing in acute full-thickness skin wounds by collagen loaded with MSCs [200]
BM In vivo Verifying the positive effect of autophagy in MSC-mediated vascularization in cutaneous wound healing by adjusting the VEGF producing [201]
BMMNC In vitro Inducing the migration of skin and wound fibroblast by MSCs [202]
PB In vivo Improving the wound healing sheep skin through promoting the expression of hair-keratin (hKER) and Collagen1 gene (Col1α1) by MSCs [203]
AT In vivo Amelioration of diabetic wounds by decellularized silk fibroin scaffold primed with MSCs [204]
BM In vitro Improving the expression of ICAM-1 in MSCs leading to the promotion of their migration by TNF-α [205]
BMMNC In vivo Amelioration of wound damages by MSCs-expressing angiopoietin-1 gene [130]
BM In vivo Promoting the functions of MSCs in wound bed by their pretreatment with TGF-β1 [206]
AT In vivo Improving the wound healing rate in diabetic rats without any enhancement in volume density of the vessels and collagen fibers by MSCs [207]
  1. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), Adipose tissue (AT), Bone marrow (BM), Umbilical cord blood (UCB), Wharton's jelly (WJ), Buccal fat pad (BFP), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB), Insulin secreting cells (ISCs), Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), MicroRNAs (miRNAs)