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Table 2 Advantages and disadvantages of different stem cells

From: Update of application of olfactory ensheathing cells and stem cells/exosomes in the treatment of retinal disorders

Stem cell type Common sources Advantages Disadvantages
OECs Olfactory bulb and olfactory mucosa Self-renewal
Induced differentiation into other cell types
Difficult to obtain
Have possibility of carrying donor disease genes
ESCs The mass of cells in the inner layer of a blastocyst embryo Self-renewal
Potential to differentiate into any type of cells
Have difficulties in inducing differentiation and culture
Have risk of inducing tumorigenesis
Allogeneic donors face immune rejection and possible hidden genetic defects
MSCs Bone marrow, adipose tissue, placenta, umbilical cord blood, dental pulp, heart muscle, and liver Wide sources;
Self-renewal
Induced differentiation into other types of cells
Have possibility of carrying donor disease genes
Allogeneic donors face immune rejection
iPSCs Reprogram somatic cells into a pluripotent state Extracted directly from autogenous tissue
Fewer ethical issues and lower rejection
Retained epigenetic characteristics of donor cells
Have possibility of carrying donor disease genes
RPCs Inner layer of retina of fetuses Low immunogenicity and tumorigenicity Limited ability to proliferate and differentiate
Lack of sufficient donor cells
hAESCs Pluripotent inner cell mass of blastocysts Good genetic stability; low immunogenicity and tumorigenicity Have possibility of carrying donor disease genes