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Table 2 Administration of modified mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or/and native MSCs in combination with other modalities in liver failure preclinical models, especially acute liver failure (ALF)

From: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their exosome in acute liver failure (ALF): a comprehensive review

Sources Model Intervention Result (ref)
Adipose tissue Rat MSCs plus Eugenol Enhancing antifibrotic competencies of MSCs by eugenol through down-regulation of TGF-β/Smad axis [205]
Bone marrow Rat MSC plus
Neutrophil depletion
Amelioration of ALF in rats [206]
Umbilical cord Rat MSC plus Icaritin Enhancing the antiapoptotic capability of MSCs by promoting the HGF/c-Met pathway [131]
Umbilical cord Mice HNF4α-overexpressing MSCs plus Hepatocyte Improving the EGF release by HNF4α-UMSCs [207]
Umbilical cord blood Rat VEGF165 -overexpressing MSCs Induction of marked therapeutic influences on ALF [143]
Bone marrow Mice CXCR4-overexpressing MSCs Improved migration and reduced damaged tissue by stimulating hepatoprotective impacts [142]
Amniotic fluid Rat IL-1-overexpressing MSCs Improved liver function along with prolonged survival [145]
NA Swine MSCs plus IL-lRa-loaded chitosan nanoparticles Eliciting a synergistic impact by abrogating liver inflammation [136]
Bone marrow Rat Dexmedetomidine and Midazolam primed MSCs Enhancing the therapeutic merits of MSCs [208]
Umbilical cord Rat MSCs plus G-CSF Attenuation of liver damage by suppressing the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, alleviation of oxidative stress, and reducing liver cell loss [132]
Bone marrow Swine MSCs plus IL-1R antagonism Exerting synergistic influences by prohibiting the inflammation and apoptotic signaling [135]
Bone marrow Mice MSCs seeded on human amniotic membranes (HAM) Improving survival rate [209]
Bone marrow Mice Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold loaded with MSCs Stimulation of hepatoprotective impacts by paracrine factors [127, 128]
Bone marrow Mice Regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) scaffold loaded with MSCs Potentiating liver function by provoking angiogenesis [130]
  1. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α), Transforming growth factor (TGF-β), Vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165), Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)