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Table 1 Stem cell sources for skeletal muscle bioengineering and clinical applications

From: Adult stem cell sources for skeletal and smooth muscle tissue engineering

Stem cell Origin Differentiation capabilities Lineage specific markers Clinical studies
Satellite cells Beneath basal lamina of myofibers Mitotically quiescent stem cells Pax7 + MyoD-
MPCs Beneath basal lamina of myofibers Activated upon muscle damage MyoD + Myf5+ Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) [24], stress urinary incontinence (SUI) [25, 27, 28]
MDSCs In close proximity to basal lamina of myofibers Myogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic Co-expression of myogenic and endothelial markers
MSCs Bone marrow, fat, skeletal muscle, umbilical cord, blood Myogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic CD105+, CD73+, CD90+, CD45−, CD34−, CD14−, CD3−, HLA-DR -
ADSCs Adipose tissue Myogenic (when cultured in myogenic induction medium containing horse serum) CD105+, CD73+, CD44+, CD29+, CD90+, CD45−, CD34− Male urinary incontinence [53, 54], SUI [55]
AFSCs Amniotic fluid Myogenic, osteogenic, adipogenic, endothelial, neurogenic and hepatogenic CD44+, CD73+, CD90+, CD105+, SSEA-4 SUI [58]
HSCs Bone marrow, skeletal muscle Myogenic CD45+/Sca1+