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Table 2 Characteristics of North America/European and Other countries

From: Clinical trials of stem cell-based therapies for pediatric diseases: a comprehensive analysis of trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov and the ICTRP portal site

   North America and European (n = 105) Other (n = 97) χ2/Fisher P
Submitted year Prior to 2003 6 (5.7%) 0 (0) 36.324  < 0.001
  2003–2007 18 (17.1%) 0 (0)   
  2008–2012 29 (27.6%) 16 (16.5%)   
  2013–2017 28 (26.7%) 32 (33.0%)   
  2018-mid2021 24 (22.9%) 49 (50.5%)   
Publication No 83 (79.0%) 78 (80.4%) 0.058 0.810
  Yes 22 (21.0%) 19 (19.6%)   
Sponsor University and Hospital 42 (40.0%) 62 (63.9%) 11.738 0.008
  Industry 26 (24.8%) 16 (16.5%)   
  NPO 28 (26.7%) 14 (14.4%)   
  Other 9 (8.6%) 5 (5.2%)   
Location Multicountry-multicenter 16 (15.2%) 0 (0) 20.152  < 0.001
  Single center 62 (59.0%) 71 (73.2%)   
  Single country-multicenter 23 (21.9%) 16 (16.5%)   
  NA 4 (3.8%) 10 (10.3%)   
Estimated Enrollment  < 50 79 (75.2%) 65 (67.0%) 7.151 0.128
  50 ≤ n < 100 12 (11.4%) 18 (18.6%)   
  100 ≤ n < 200 6 (5.7%) 7 (7.2%)   
   ≥ 200 4 (3.8%) 7 (7.2%)   
  NA 4 (3.8%) 0 (0)   
Gender All 98 (93.3%) 91 (93.8%) 0.019 0.889
  Male only 7 (6.7%) 6 (6.2%)   
DMC No 23 (21.9%) 22 (22.7%) 3.234 0.199
  Yes 66 (62.9%) 51 (52.6%)   
  Not provided 16 (15.2%) 24 (24.7%)   
Study type Interventional 100 (95.2%) 86 (88.7%) 2.992 0.084
  Observational 5 (4.8%) 11 (11.3%)   
Named product No 83 (79.0%) 89 (91.8%) 13.873 0.011
  Yes 22 (21.0%) 8 (8.2%)   
Combination therapy No 67 (63.8%) 79 (81.4%) 7.825 0.005
  Yes 38 (36.2%) 18 (18.6%)   
Autologous/allogeneic Allogeneic 46 (43.8%) 37 (38.1%) 8.144 0.043
  Autologous 46 (43.8%) 33 (34.0%)   
  Allogeneic + autologous 0 (0) 1 (1.0%)   
  NA 13 (12.4%) 26 (26.8%)   
  1.  * NA, not available