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Figure 10 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Figure 10

From: Cyclosporine-assisted adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy to mitigate acute kidney ischemia–reperfusion injury

Figure 10

Proposed mechanisms underlying therapeutic effects of cyclosporine, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and combination therapy. Proposed mechanisms underlying therapeutic effects of cyclosporine (CsA), adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs), and combined CsA and ADMSCs on improving renal ischemia–reperfusion. ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; RANTES, regulated and normal T-cell expressed and secreted; MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; HO-1, heme oxygenase-1; NQO, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase; NOX, NAD(P)H oxidase; eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; SDF-1α, stromal cell-derived factor-1α; vWF, von Willebrand factor; PARP, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen.

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