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Table 2 Summary of proteasome inhibitors and their impact on pluripotency

From: The proteasome complex and the maintenance of pluripotency: sustain the fate by mopping up?

Cell type Concentration, inhibitor/time Effect Pluripotency marker Reference
HFF/iPSC-derived fibroblast 250, 500 and 1,000 nM MG132/40 hours No morphological change Nondetectable [21]
Fibroblasts 2 μM UK101/PD957 Complete inhibition of reprogramming Nondetectable [40]
MEFs Low doses of MG132 Complete inhibition of reprogramming Nondetectable [32]
hESC-derived fibroblasts 250, 500 and 1,000 nM MG132/40 hours No morphological change Nondetectable [21]
hESCs 125 nM MG132/40 hours No effect Significant downregulation of OCT4, SOX2, NANOG and TRA-1-60 [21]
  250 nM MG132/40 hours Large patches of differentiated areas   
  500 nM MG132/40 hours Only differentiated cells   
  1,000 nM MG132/40 hours Detachment of undifferentiated cells   
hESCs 62.5 nM MG132/24 hours Downregulation of pluripotent markers and modified levels of specific germ-layer markers (upregulation of FGF5 and GATA4) Significant downregulation of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2 and ZFP42 [34]
hESCs 2 μM UK101/PD957 for 4 days Pluripotency diminished, less alkaline phosphatase positive colonies, upregulation of FGF5 and GATA4 Significant downregulation of TRA-1-81 and SSEA3 [40]
  1. Application of distinct proteasome inhibitors on different cell types, the effect of inhibition and the influence on pluripotency-associated transcription factors. hESC, human embryonic stem cell; HFF, human neonatal foreskin fibroblast; iPSC, induced pluripotent stem cell; MEF, murine embryonic fibroblast.