MSC–educated M2 macrophages improve kidney injury and promote kidney repair. Mice treated with LV or LC were subjected to rhabdomyolysis followed by infusion of 1 × 107 M0, M1 or M2 macrophages immediately after glycerol injection. (a-c) Serum creatinine (SCr) values, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) scores are shown for mice 72 hours after rhabdomyolysis. #P < 0.05 versus rhabdomyolysis LV alone, M0 or M1 groups, n = 5. (d) Representative renal histopathology of different groups is shown 72 hours after rhabdomyolysis. LC, liposomal clodronate; LV, liposomal vehicle; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell.