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Table 1 Repair of injured spinal cord using biomaterial scaffolds

From: Repair of injured spinal cord using biomaterial scaffolds and stem cells

Injury Animal model SCI stagea Scaffold Outcome Reference
Complete transection (mid thoracic) Rat Acute Collagen single channel tube Significant axonal regeneration in tube and reduced scar invasion [27]
Complete transection (T9) Rat Acute Fibrin beads Increased axonal fiber density along injury site [29]
Hemisection (T7-T9) Rat Acute Fibronectin mat Considerable axonal growth along implant site [30]
Hemisection (T7-T9) Rat Acute Fibrin/fibronectin gel Axonal growth observed [31]
Complete transection (C4) Rat Acute Agarose multichannel tube Axonal regeneration along lesion site [32]
Complete transection (T3) Rat Acute Agarose multichannel honeycomb structure Linear axonal regeneration along injury site [33]
Hemisection (C3) Rat Acute Agarose multichannel tube Linear axonal regeneration and significant linear axonal growth [34]
Compression (T9) Rat Acute Hyaluronic acid hydrogel Axon proliferation and motor function improvement [35]
Hemisection (T8-T9) Rat Acute Hyaluronic acid hydrogel Increased axonal regeneration and inhibition of scar formation [36]
Compression (T12-L1) Guinea pig Acute Chitosan injectable solution Partial restoration of somatosensory- evoked potential [37]
Complete transection (T9) Rat Acute Chitosan single channel tube Axonal regeneration and partial locomotor functional recovery of hind limbs [38]
Complete transection (C6-C7) Rat Acute Self-assembled peptide nanofiber Axonal regeneration [18]
Compression (T2) Rat Acute Hyaluronan and methyl cellulose hydrogel blend Host axon survival and functional improvement [39]
Hemisection (C3-C4) Rat Acute Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate single channel tube Axonal regeneration along conduit [40]
Complete transection (T8) Rat Acute PHEMA-co-MMA hydrogel Axonal regeneration [41]
Complete transection (T9-T10) Rat Acute PLA macroporous sponge Myelinated axon regeneration and gradual functional recovery in hind limb motion [42]
  1. aAcute refers to implantation of scaffolds with cells immediately after injury. PHEMA-co-MMA, poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate; PLA, polylactic acid; SCI, spinal cord injury.