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Table 1 Summary of cardiomyocyte derivation from various origins

From: Uses of cardiomyocytes generated from induced pluripotent stem cells

Study Species Cell type Method of differentiation Factors to enhance differentiation Purification of cardiomyocytes Application
Doetschman et al. [5] Mouse ESC or EC 15% FCS in suspension culture - - -
Maltsev et al. [21] Mouse ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture - - -
Maltsev et al. [22] Mouse ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture - Isolation by cutting the beating area of EBs -
Klug et al. [19] Mouse ESC 10% FCS in suspension culture No LIF Microdissecting the beating area of EBs or selection by α-MHC-neo transgene -
Wobus et al. [8] Mouse ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture RA Selection by MLC-2v-β-gal-neo transgene -
Kolossov et al. [20] Mouse ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture - Selection by α-actin-GFP transgene -
Kehat et al. [29] Human ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture DMSO - -
Xu et al. [28] Human ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture 5-aza-dC Separation by Percoll density centrifugation Test response of CMs to several pharmacological agents
Mummery et al. [34] Human ESC Co-culture with VE-like END-2 cells - - -
He et al. [30] Human ESC 15% FCS in suspension culture - - Characterizing multiple types of CMs by action potential measuring
Segev et al. [37] Human ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture - - -
Passier et al. [35] Human ESC 0 to 20% FCS in suspension and
co-culture with VE-like END-2 cells,
in the absence of ITS or in the
presence of ascorbic acid
- - -
Yoon et al. [31] Human ESC 20% FCS in hanging drop culture 5-aza-dC - -
Schwanke et al. [43] Monkey ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture - - -
Abdelalim et al. [42] Monkey ESC 15% FCS in hanging drop culture - Microdissecting the beating area of EBs -
Dai et al. [76] Human ESC Serum-free END-2 cell-conditioned
medium
- - CM injection into ischemic rat left ventricle
Huber et al. [38] Human ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture - Selection by hMLC-2v-GFP-neo transgene and FACS sorting for GFP-positive cells Formation of stable myocardial cell grafts after in vivo cell transplantation
Anderson et al. [39] Human ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture - Both negative selection by HSVtk/GCV and positive selection by α-MHC-GFP-PAC transgene -
Narazaki et al. [49] Mouse iPSC 10% FCS in suspension culture No LIF - -
Mauritz et al. [47] Mouse iPSC 15% FCS in hanging drop culture - - -
Schenke-Layland et al. [48] Mouse iPSC 10% FCS in suspension culture No LIF - -
Yang et al. [36] Human ESC Serum-free medium BMP4, bFGF, activin A, DKK1, VEGF Selection by Flk1 FACS sorting -
Takei et al. [33] Human ESC 20% FCS in suspension culture BMP4 - -
Zhang et al. [50] Human iPSC 20% FCS in suspension culture - - -
Zwi et al. [51] Human iPSC 20% FCS in suspension culture - - Serving as in vitro platform for pharmacological QT screening
Ieda et al. [80] Mouse Fibroblast Fibroblasts from αMHC-GFP transgenic mice were transduced with viruses carrying TFs (Gata4, Mef2c, Tbx5) - - Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into CMs
Carvajal-Vergara et al. [66] Human iPSC Serum-free medium BMP4, bFGF, activin A, DKK1, VEGF Selection by Flk1 FACS sorting In vitro LEOPARD syndrome modeling
Moretti et al. [71] Human iPSC 20% FCS in suspension culture - Microdissecting the beating area of EBs In vitro LQTS modeling
Itzhaki et al. [72] Human iPSC 20% FCS in suspension culture - - In vitro LQTS modeling
Yazawa et al. [73] Human iPSC 20% FCS in suspension culture Wnt3a - In vitro Timothy syndrome modeling
Efe et al. [82] Mouse Fibroblast Fibroblasts harboring a Nebulette-LacZ transgene were transduced with viruses carrying TFs (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4) No LIF, but plus BMP4 or JI1 - Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into CMs
Cao et al. [41] Rat ESC 10% FCS in hanging drop culture Small molecule inhibitor - -
  1. 5-aza-dC, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine; bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; CM, cardiomyocytes; DKK1, Dickkopf homolog 1; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; EB, embryoid body; EC, embryonal carcinoma; ESC, embryonic stem cell; FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorting; FCS, fetal calf serum; Flk1, VEGF receptor 2; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HSVtk/GCV, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir; iPSC, induced pluripotent stem cell; ITS, insulin-transferrin-selenium; JI1, JAK inhibitor; LIF, leukemia inhibitory factor; LQTS, long QT syndrome; MHC, myosin heavy chain; MLC-2v, myosin light chain-2v; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; PAC, puromycin-N-acetyltransferase; RA, retinoic acid; TF, transcription factor; VE, visceral-endoderm; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.