Cytokine expression profile of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in different expansion media. Cytokine concentrations (expressed in picograms per 106 cells) were evaluated in MSC supernatants at passage 2 (P2) after culture in M1 (10% FBS + FGF2) (n = 4), M2 (10% FBS + 5% HPL) (n = 6), M3 (10% HPL) (n = 4), and M4 (5% HPL) (n = 3). (A) IL-6 (*P = 005; **P = 0.01). (B) IL-8 (*P < 0.05). (C) VEGF (*P < 0.01). IL, interleukin; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.