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Table 2 Characteristics of human induced pluripotent stem cells compared to human embryonic stem cells

From: Investigating cellular identity and manipulating cell fate using induced pluripotent stem cells

Variable factor Characteristics Characteristics of hiPS cells
Cell source   Without the use of embryonic material Enable autologous cell transplantation
Technique for the generation of iPS cells   Simply trans-activating several transcription factors and/or exposure to several chemical components
Variables due to reprogramming methods and/or donor-parental cells
Morphology   Flat and tightly packed colony identical to hES cells
Proliferation potency   Unlimited self-renewal identical to hES cells
Pluripotency Genes OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 expression identical to hES cells
  Gene promoter OCT3/4, NANOG demethylation identical to hES cells
  Cell surface antigens SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 positive identical to hES cells
  Teratoma formation Differentiation into three germ layers similar to hES cells
X chromosome inactivation (XCI)   Heterogeneity (complete XCI, partial XCI, pre-XCI) similar to hES cells
Mitochondria Genome Accumulated mtDNA mutations transmitted from parental cells Genetic mutations during reprogramming
  Morphology Globular shape with only small christae similar to hES cells and ES cell-like distribution
  Function Expression of nuclear factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis
Telomere   Telomere elongation and ES cell-like telomerase activity
Epigenetic profile   Retention of somatic memory and aberrant methylation during the reprogramming process
microRNAs   Up-regulation of miR-302 cluster identical to hES cells
  1. ES, embryonic stem; hES, human embryonic stem; hiPS, human induced pluripotent stem; iPS, induced pluripotent stem; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; XCI, × chromosome inactivation.