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Table 1 Intrahepatic animal stem cell tracking studies with dye-mediated optical imaging

From: Noninvasive in-vivo tracing and imaging of transplanted stem cells for liver regeneration

Study Species (n) Animal model Cell type Agent Delivery/number of cells infused Study observations
Ma, 2014 [7] Mice (75) CCl4-induced ALF model Xenogeneic BMSCs DiR Caudal vein/106 At 5 days after transplantation, a strong fluorescent signal from labeled CXCR4 MSCs was almost distributed in the liver, whereas in the null group the liver and spleen transmitted nearly the same signal intensity
Sun et al., 2013 [8] Rats (18) CBDL-induced obstructive liver disease model Allogeneic BMSCs CM-DiI Intrasplenic injection/106 Detection of fluorescence-labeled cells after 1 week
The labeling procedure did not impair cytomophology
The fluorescent images showed that the IOD was significantly larger in experiment group, and the signals presented unevenly distribution in the fibrous liver tissue
Ikeda et al., 2008 [10]/Zhan et al., 2006 [11] Rats (7/unknown) CCl4-induced liver injury model Allogeneic TGPCs/HSC PKH26 Portal vein/107 The red fluorescent cells demonstrated the capacity of stem cells to migrate, proliferate, and differentiate in pathologic hepatic environments after engraftment
Li et al., 2013 [12] Mice (14) MHCC97-H-induced HCC model Xenogeneic BMSCs RFP, GFP, BrdU, DAPI Caudal vein/105 Luminescent binucleated cells were seldom observed both in vitro and in vivo for a long-term follow-up period
After 4 days, most BMSCs grafted to the tumor focus, and after 20 days, labeled MSCs almost accumulated in the tumor stroma
Ezzat et al., 2012 [13] Mice (40) APAP-induced ALF model Allogeneic ESCs DiR, GFP Intrasplenic injection/106 DiR-labeled cells accumulated in the spleen within 30 min, moved to the liver at 3 hours, disseminated to almost all regions of the liver at 24 hours, and faded at 72 hours
GFP-positive cells were found under the liver capsule and were still detected after 2 weeks
Akham et al., 2015 [15] Rats (6) PHx-induced liver injury model Allogeneic BMSCs CPN Caudal vein/106 Postmortem liver tissue showed the presence of luminescent cells at the injury lesions and retained there
The labeling process did not impair the marker expression, multilineage differentiation ability, or cell viability
Yukawa et al., 2012 [16] Mice (18) CCl4-induced ALF model Allogeneic AD-MSCs QDs Caudal vein/106 Within 10 min, 70 % of fluorescent signal retained in the lungs and 30 % of signals came from the liver when AD-MSCs were transplanted with heparin
After 1 day, the accumulation rate decreased to 10 % in both organs and maintained for at least 2 days
  1. CCl4 carbon tetrachloride, BMSC bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, ALF acute liver failure; CXCR4 chemokine CXC receptor 4, CBDL common bile duct ligation, IOD integral optical density, HSC hematopoietic stem cell, TGPC tooth germ progenitor cell, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, GFP green fluorescent protein, RFP red fluorescent protein, APAP acetaminophen, ESC embryonic stem cell, PHx partial hepatectomy, CPN conjugated polymer-based water-dispersible nanoparticles, AD-MSC adipose-derived mesenchymal cell, QD quantum dot, DAPI 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, BrdU 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine, DiR 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide