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Table 2 Gene therapy approaches to improve MSC potency in lung diseases

From: Strategies to improve the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stromal cells in respiratory diseases

Lung disease model Upregulated gene MSC source MSC dose Time of MSC administration In vivo effects
(compared to wild-type MSC)
Reference
LPS-induced ARDS Developmental endothelial locus-1 Murine bone marrow 5 × 106 1 h after LPS injection Lung injury histopathological index
Pulmonary edema
Neutrophil counts, TNF-α levels, and protein concentration in BALF
Myeloperoxidase activity in lung homogenates
[46]
ST2 receptor gene Human adipose tissue 106 6 h after LPS injection IL-10 mRNA levels in lung homogenate
IL-1β and IFN-γ mRNA levels in lung homogenate
LPS-mediated production of circulating IL-33
TNF-α and IL-6 levels and protein concentration in BALF
Polymorphonuclear cells in interstitial space
[47]
Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 Murine bone marrow 5 × 105 4 h after LPS injection Lung injury histopathological index
Total cell counts in BALF
Neutrophil counts in BALF
Ang-2, IL-1β and IL-6 protein levels in lung homogenates
IL-10 protein levels in lung homogenates
IL-1β serum levels
Vascular permeability
[48]
Radiation-induced ARDS Manganese superoxide dismutase Human bone marrow 106 4 h after exposure to radiation Lung injury histopathological index
Pulmonary edema
TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels
IL-10 serum levels
Hydroxyproline in lung homogenates
Neutrophil counts in BALF
Lipid peroxidation
Cell apoptosis in lung tissue
Survival rates
[49]
Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension Heme oxygenase-1 isoform Murine bone marrow 106 2 weeks after exposure to hypoxia Right ventricle systolic pressure
Right ventricle hypertrophy
[50]