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Table 2 Differentiation capability of urine-derived cells and their potential application

From: Urine-derived cells for human cell therapy

Type of urine cell Differentiated to Markers expressed before differentiation Markers expressed after transdifferentiation/differentiation In-vivo testing reported Potential application Reference
Urine stem cells Endothelial vWF, CD31 KDR, VE-cadherin, FLT-1, eNOS Yes Renal reconstruction, angiogenesis, SUI, erectile dysfunction [36]
Uroepithelial Uroplakin Ia Uroplakin-III, AE1/AE3 and CK7 Yes Urological reconstruction [3, 6]
Smooth muscle α-SMA Desmin, Myosin, Smoothelin, Yes Bladder reconstruction, Genitourinary repair [5, 14]
Myogenic Nil MyoD, Myogenin, Myf5, Myosin Yes Heart repair, SUI [88, 89]
Beta–like cells Nil PDX1 Yes Diabetic treatment [62]
Osteogenic Nil Osteocalcin, Runx2, ALP Yes Bone tissue engineering [21]
Neuronal Sox-2 GFAP, Nestin, NF-200, S100 no Neural tissue engineering [85]
  Chondrogenic Nil Sox-9, Collagen II, Aggrecan Yes Cartilage replacement [22, 90]
iPSC Klf-4, Sox-2, Oct 3/4, c-Myc Nanog Yes (teratoma) Disease modelling/drug screening [91]
Renal cells Neural stem cells Sox-2 Nestin, Pax6, Yes Neurodegenerative disorders [33]
Beta cells Sox-17, PDX1 NKX6.1, Insulin, C-peptide Yes Diabetic therapy [55]
  iPSC Unknown Sox-2, Oct3/4, Klf-4, Tra-1, SSEA-4 Yes (teratoma) Disease modelling/drug screening [32]
  1. Urine stem cells have been shown to generate differentiated cells for kidney, genitourinary, cartilage, bone, and cardiac repair
  2. Renal cells have been utilised to generate differentiated cells such as beta cell and liver cells
  3. Pluripotent stem cells have been generated from both renal cells and urine stem cells
  4. See the abbreviations list for definitions of the marker acronyms
  5. iPSC induced pluripotent stem cells, SUI stress urinary incontinence