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Table 1 Effect of insulin resistance on skeletal muscle development and regeneration in animal models

From: The effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity on muscle progenitor cell function

Animal Treatment Start age Chow (gm%) Muscle mass/size Muscle regeneration SC content SC proliferation Mechanism Reference
C57BL6 mice HFD for 8 months 6-week-old 23% protein, 35.8% fat, and 35.5% carbohydrate N/A Smaller regenerating myofibers plus more collagen deposition N/A No change Increased expression of PTEN, which lowers muscle PIP3 [30]
C57BL6 mice HFD for 3 weeks 3-week-old 26.2% protein, 34.9% fat, and 26.3% carbohydrate Decreased muscle mass Reduced regenerative capability Decreased N/A N/A [41]
C57BL6 mice HFD for 12 weeks 4-week-old 60% kcal from fat N/A Normal N/A No change N/A [55]
C57BL6 mice HFD for 6 weeks 4-week-old 18.3% protein, 60.9% fat, and 20.1% carbohydrate (kcal%) No change Delayed No change Reduced SCs do not respond to HGF activation [42]
Ob/ob and db/db mice Normal chow   6% kcal from fat N/A Delayed N/A Reduced N/A [55]
OZR Normal chow    Smaller skeletal muscle size N/A SC% no change Decreased Reduced Akt signaling [45]
OZR Normal chow    N/A N/A N/A Normal N/A [46]
  1. SC satellite cell, HFD high-fat diet, HGF hepatocyte growth factor, OZR obese Zucker rats, N/A not available