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Table 1 Differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) into male germ cells in vitro

From: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and their exosomes for restoration of spermatogenesis in non-obstructive azoospermia: a systemic review

MSC source Source age Species Inducer References
Adipose tissue Adult Dog BMP4 [65]
Adipose tissue Adult Dog CD61 overexpression [66]
Adipose tissue Adult Goat BOULE overexpression
DAZL overexpression
STRA8 overexpression
[67]
Adipose tissue Adult Human Retinoic acid [68]
Adipose tissue Adult Mouse BMP4
EGF
GDNF
LIF
Retinoic acid
[69]
Adipose tissue Adult Mouse Sertoli cells co-culture
Retinoic acid
Testosterone
[70]
Adipose tissue Adult Mouse Testicular cell conditioned medium
Retinoic acid
[71]
Amniotic membrane Fetal Human Retinoic acid [72]
Amniotic membrane Fetal Mouse BMP4
Retinoic acid
[73]
Bone marrow Adult Goat BMP4
Retinoic acid
[74]
Bone marrow Adult Human Retinoic acid
Sertoli cell-conditioned medium
[75]
Bone marrow Adult Human Retinoic acid [76]
Bone marrow Adult Mouse BMP4 [77, 78]
Bone marrow
Adipose tissue
Adult Mouse BMP4
Retinoic acid
[79]
Bone marrow Adult Mouse BMP4
Retinoic acid
[80]
Bone marrow Adult Mouse Retinoic acid [81,82,83]
Bone marrow Adult Mouse Sertoli cell-condition medium [84]
Bone marrow Adult Mouse Static magnetic field
BMP4
[85]
Bone marrow Adult Mouse Retinoic acid
Testicular cell co-culture
[86]
Bone marrow Adult Rat bFGF
LIF
Retinoic acid
[87]
Bone marrow Adult Rat Retinoic acid [88]
Bone marrow Adult Rat Sertoli cell co-culture [89]
Bone marrow Adult Sheep Inorganic zinc (sulfate) [90]
Bone marrow Adult Sheep Inorganic zinc (sulfate)
Organic zinc (acetate)
Retinoic acid
[91]
Bone marrow Adult Sheep Retinoic acid
TGF-β1
[92]
Bone marrow Adult Sheep Retinoic acid [93]
Bone marrow Adult Sheep TGFb1
BMP4
BMP8b
[94]
Bone marrow Fetal Human Retinoic acid
Testicular extracts
[95]
Lung Fetal Human Retinoic acid [96]
Umbilical cord Fetal Human BMP4
Retinoic acid
[97, 98]
Umbilical cord Fetal Human BMP4 [99]
Umbilical cord Fetal Human pCD61-CAGG-TRIP-pur (oCD61) plasmid [100]
Umbilical cord Fetal Human Testicular cell co-culture [101]
Wharton’s jelly Fetal Human BMP4
Testicular cell-conditioned medium
Placental cell-conditioned medium
Retinoic acid
[102]
Wharton’s jelly Fetal Human BMP4
Placenta cell co-culture
Retinoic acid
[103]
Wharton’s jelly Fetal Human Retinoic acid
Testosterone
Testicular cell-conditioned medium
[104]
Wharton’s jelly Fetal Human Retinoic acid [105, 106]
Wharton’s jelly Fetal Human Sertoli cell co-culture [107]
  1. Abbreviations: bFGF basic fibroblast growth factor, BMP bone morphogenetic protein, EGF epidermal growth factor, GDNF glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, LIF leukemia inhibitory factor, TGFb1 transforming growth factor-beta 1