Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. New Engl J Med. 2020;382:1199–207.
Xu X-W, Wu X-X, Jiang X-G, Xu K-J, Ying L-J, Ma C-L, et al. Clinical findings in a group of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) outside of Wuhan, China: retrospective case series. BMJ. 2020;368:606.
Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. New Engl J Med. 2020;382:929–36.
Farkhad NK, Reihani H, Moghadam AA, Moghadam AB, Tavakol-Afshari J. Are mesenchymal stem cells able to manage cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients? A review of recent studies. Regen Ther. 2021;18:152–60.
Fang Y, Liu H, Huang H, Li H, Saqi A, Qiang L, et al. Distinct stem/progenitor cells proliferate to regenerate the trachea, intrapulmonary airways and alveoli in COVID-19 patients. Cell Res. 2020;30(8):705–7.
Zhou P, Yang X-L, Wang X-G, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020;579(7798):270–3.
Leng Z, Zhu R, Hou W, Feng Y, Yang Y, Han Q, et al. Transplantation of ACE2-mesenchymal stem cells improves the outcome of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Aging Dis. 2020;11(2):216.
Magro G. SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: is interleukin-6 (IL-6) the ‘culprit lesion’ of ARDS onset? What is there besides Tocilizumab? SGP130Fc. Cytokine: X. 2020;2(2):100029.
Kao K-C, Hu H-C, Chang C-H, Hung C-Y, Chiu L-C, Li S-H, et al. Diffuse alveolar damage associated mortality in selected acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with open lung biopsy. Crit Care. 2015;19(1):1–10.
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497–506.
Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395(10229):1054–62.
Neri S. Genetic stability of mesenchymal stromal cells for regenerative medicine applications: a fundamental biosafety aspect. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(10):2406.
Farkhad NK, Mahmoudi A, Mahdipour E. How similar are human mesenchymal stem cells derived from different origins? A review of comparative studies. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021;16(8):980–93.
Manchikanti L, Centeno CJ, Atluri S, Albers SL, Shapiro S, Malanga GA, et al. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) therapy in musculoskeletal disorders: evidence-based policy position statement of American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP). Pain Phys. 2020;2, 23:E85–131.
Tavakol-Afshari J, Boroumand AR, Farkhad NK, Moghadam AA, Sahab-Negah S, Gorji A. Safety and efficacy of bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells transplantation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Regen Ther. 2021;18:268–74.
Wu Y, Cao Y, Li X, Xu L, Wang Z, Liu P, et al. Cotransplantation of haploidentical hematopoietic and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for severe aplastic anemia: successful engraftment and mild GVHD. Stem Cell Res. 2014;12(1):132–8.
Wilson JG, Liu KD, Zhuo H, Caballero L, McMillan M, Fang X, et al. Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells for treatment of ARDS: a phase 1 clinical trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2015;3(1):24–32.
Liu KD, Wilson JG, Zhuo H, Caballero L, McMillan ML, Fang X, et al. Design and implementation of the START (STem cells for ARDS Treatment) trial, a phase 1/2 trial of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for the treatment of moderate–severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Intensive Care. 2014;4(1):1–9.
Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Zhuo H, Thompson BT, Wilson JG, Levitt JE, et al. Treatment with allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells for moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (START study): a randomised phase 2a safety trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2019;7(2):154–62.
Simonson OE, Mougiakakos D, Heldring N, Bassi G, Johansson HJ, Dalén M, et al. In vivo effects of mesenchymal stromal cells in two patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2015;4(10):1199–213.
Lanzoni G, Linetsky E, Correa D, Alvarez R, Marttos A, Hirani K, et al. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells for COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). CellR4 Repair Replacement Regener Reprogram. 2020;8:e2839.
Hashemian S-MR, Aliannejad R, Zarrabi M, Soleimani M, Vosough M, Hosseini S-E, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from perinatal tissues for treatment of critically ill COVID-19-induced ARDS patients: a case series. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021;12(1):1–12.
Lalu MM, McIntyre L, Pugliese C, Fergusson D, Winston BW, Marshall JC, et al. Safe ty of cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (safecell): a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(10):e47559.
Orleans L, is Vice H, Manchikanti L. Expanded umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) as a therapeutic strategy in managing critically ill COVID-19 patients: the case for compassionate use. Pain Phys. 2020;23:E71–83.
Wysoczynki M, Khan A, Bolli R. New paradigms in cell therapy: repeated dosing, intravenous delivery, immunomodulatory actions, and new cell types. Circ Res. 2018;123(2):138–58.
Qin H, Zhao A. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome: from basic to clinics. Protein Cell. 2020;11:707–22.
Seshareddy K, Troyer D, Weiss ML. Method to isolate mesenchymal-like cells from Wharton’s Jelly of umbilical cord. Methods Cell Biol. 2008;86:101–19.
Organization WH. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected: interim guidance, 13 March 2020. World Health Organization; 2020.
Curley GF, Ansari B, Hayes M, Devaney J, Masterson C, Ryan A, et al. Effects of intratracheal mesenchymal stromal cell therapy during recovery and resolution after ventilator-induced lung injury. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(4):924–32.
Curley GF, Hayes M, Ansari B, Shaw G, Ryan A, Barry F, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells enhance recovery and repair following ventilator-induced lung injury in the rat. Thorax. 2012;67(6):496–501.
Chen H, Zhang L, He Z, Wang D, Liu L, Zhang W, et al. Systemic administration of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells effectively ameliorates the outcomes of a critically ill elderly patient with COVID-19 with multiple comorbidities: a case report. World Acad Sci J. 2020;2(6):1.
Sánchez-Guijo F, García-Arranz M, López-Parra M, Monedero P, Mata-Martínez C, Santos A, et al. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. A proof of concept study. EClinicalMedicine. 2020;25:100454.
Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(5):846–8.
Miao Y, Fan L, Li J-Y. Potential treatments for COVID-19 related cytokine storm-beyond corticosteroids. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1445.
Tisoncik JR, Korth MJ, Simmons CP, Farrar J, Martin TR, Katze MG. Into the eye of the cytokine storm. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2012;76(1):16–32.
Sinha P, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Is a “cytokine storm” relevant to COVID-19? JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(9):1152–4.
Ragab D, Salah Eldin H, Taeimah M, Khattab R, Salem R. The COVID-19 cytokine storm; what we know so far. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1446.
Liu J, Li S, Liu J, Liang B, Wang X, Wang H, et al. Longitudinal characteristics of lymphocyte responses and cytokine profiles in the peripheral blood of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. EBioMedicine. 2020;55:102763.
Shu L, Niu C, Li R, Huang T, Wang Y, Huang M, et al. Treatment of severe COVID-19 with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2020;11(1):1–11.
Peng H, Gong T, Huang X, Sun X, Luo H, Wang W, et al. A synergistic role of convalescent plasma and mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of severely ill COVID-19 patients: a clinical case report. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2020;11(1):1–6.
Kimura A, Kishimoto T. IL-6: regulator of Treg/Th17 balance. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40(7):1830–5.
Chi Z, Zhao W, Jia-Wen L, Hong Z, Gui-Qiang W. The Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) of severe COVID-19 and interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) antagonist tocilizumab man be the key to reduce the mortality. 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118634/pdf/main.pdf.
Shi L, Huang H, Lu X, Yan X, Jiang X, Xu R, et al. Effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells on lung damage in severe COVID-19 patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2021;6(1):1–9.
Chen X, Shan Y, Wen Y, Sun J, Du H. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in severe COVID-19: a retrospective study of short-term treatment efficacy and side effects. J Infect. 2020;81(4):647.
Shao M, Xu Q, Wu Z, Chen Y, Shu Y, Cao X, et al. Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate IL-6-induced acute liver injury through miR-455-3p. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2020;11(1):1–13.
Weiss ARR, Dahlke MH. Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): mechanisms of action of living, apoptotic, and dead MSCs. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1191.
Debuc B, Smadja DM. Is COVID-19 a new hematologic disease? Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2021;17(1):4–8.
Le Blanc K, Mougiakakos D. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and the innate immune system. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012;12(5):383–96.
Zhang W, Ge W, Li C, You S, Liao L, Han Q, et al. Effects of mesenchymal stem cells on differentiation, maturation, and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2004;13(3):263–71.
Jiang X-X, Zhang Y, Liu B, Zhang S-X, Wu Y, Yu X-D, et al. Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit differentiation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Blood. 2005;105(10):4120–6.
Monguió-Tortajada M, Bayes-Genis A, Rosell A, Roura S. Are mesenchymal stem cells and derived extracellular vesicles valuable to halt the COVID-19 inflammatory cascade? Current evidence and future perspectives. Thorax. 2021;76(2):196–200.
Tao J, Nie Y, Wu H, Cheng L, Qiu Y, Fu J, et al. Umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in treating a critically ill COVID-19 patient. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020;14(10):1138–45.